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Ecclesiastical Abbreviations

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Abbreviations, ECCLESIASTICAL.—The words most commonly abbreviated at all times are proper names, titles (official or customary), of persons or corporations, and words of frequent occurrence. A good list of those used in Roman Republican and early Imperial times may be seen in Egbert‘s “Latin Inscriptions” (New York, 1896), 417-459. The Jewish scribes and Talmudic scholars also had frequent recourse to Abbreviations.

Between the seventh and ninth centuries the ancient Roman system of Abbreviations gave way to a more difficult one that gradually grew up in the monastic houses and in the chanceries of the new Teutonic kingdoms. Merovingian, Lombard, and Anglo-Saxon scripts offer each their own Abbreviations, not to speak of the unique scotica manus or libri scottice scripti (Irish hand, or books written in the medieval Irish hand). Eventually such productive centers of technical manuscripts as the Papal Chancery, the theological schools of Paris and Oxford, and the civil law school of Bologna set the standards of Abbreviations for all Europe. The medieval manuscripts abound in Abbreviations, owing in part to the abandonment of the uncial, or quasiuncial, and the almost universal use of the cursive, hand. The medieval writer inherited a few from Christian antiquity; others he invented or adapted, in order to save time and parchment. They are found especially in manuscripts of scholastic theology and canon law, annals and chronicles, the Roman law, and in administrative documents, civil and ecclesiastical (charters, privileges, bulls, rescripts). They multiplied with time, and were never so numerous as on the eve of the discovery of printing; many of the early printed books offer this peculiarity, together with other characteristics of the manuscript page. The development of printing brought about the abandonment of many Abbreviations, while it suggested and introduced new ones—a process also favored by the growth of ecclesiastical legislation, the creation of new offices, etc. There was less medieval abbreviation in the text of books much used on public occasions, e.g. missals, antiphonaries, bibles; in one way or another the needs of students seem to have been the chief cause of the majority of medieval Abbreviations. The means of abbreviation were usually full points or dots (mostly in Roman antiquity), the semicolon (eventually conventionalized), lines (horizontal,. perpendicular, oblong, wavy curves, and commas). Vowel-sounds were frequently written not after, but over, the consonants. Certain letters, like p and q, that occur with extreme frequency, e.g. in prepositions and terminations, became the source of many peculiar abbreviations; similarly, frequently recurring words like et (and), est (is).

Habit and convenience are today the principal motives for using abbreviations. Most of those in actual use fall under one or other of the following heads: I. Administrative; II. Liturgical; III. Scholastic; IV. Chronological.

I. The first class of Abbreviations includes those used in the composition of Pontifical documents. They were once very numerous, and lists of them may be seen in the works quoted below (e.g. Quantin, Prou). It may be well to state at once that since December 29, 1878, by order of Leo XIII, the great papal documents (Litterae Apostolicae) are no longer written in the old Gothic hand known as bollatico; all Abbreviations, with the exception of a few obvious ones, like S.RE., were abolished by the same authority (Acta S. Sedis, XI, 465-467). In the transaction of ordinary business the Roman Congregations are wont to use certain brief and pithy formulas (e.g. Negative = “No”; Negative et amplius = “No with emphasis”). They are not, correctly speaking, Abbreviations. For a list of these see Canon Law. This class includes also the abbreviations for the names of most sees. The full Latin titles of all existing (Latin) dioceses may be seen in the Roman annual, “Gerarchia Cattolica;” a complete list of the Latin names of all known dioceses (extant or extinct) is found in the large folio work of the Comte de Mas Latrie, “Tresor de chronologie, d’histoire et de geographie” (Paris, 1884). For the same purpose the reader may also consult the episcopal catalogues of the Benedictine Gams, “Series Episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae” (Ratisbon, 1873-86), and the Franciscan Conrad Eubel, “Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi” (Munster, 1898-1902). Under this general heading may be included all abbreviated forms of addresses in ordinary intercourse, whether of individuals or of members of religious orders, congregations, institutes, to which may be added the forms of addresses usual for members of Catholic lay societies and the Papal orders of merit. (See Catholic Societies, Orders of Merit.) The Abbreviations of the titles of Roman Congregations, and of the individual canonical ecclesiastical authorities, belong also to this class.

II. A second class of Abbreviations includes those used in the description of liturgical acts or the directions for their performance, e.g. the Holy Mass, the Divine Office (Breviary), the ecclesiastical devotions, etc. In the following list the Breviary Abbreviations are marked: Br. Here may also be classed the abbreviated forms for the name of God, Jesus Christ, and the Holy Ghost; also for the names of the Blessed Virgin, the saints, etc.; likewise Abbreviations used in the administration of the Sacraments, mortuary epitaphs, etc. (to which class belong the numerous Catacomb inscriptions); finally some miscellaneous Abbreviations like those used in the publication of documents concerning beatification and canonization.

III. In the third class belong scholastic Abbreviations, used to designate honorific titles acquired in the schools, to avoid the repetition of lengthy titles of books and reviews, or to facilitate reference to ecclesiastical and civil legislation.

IV. In the fourth class of Abbreviations belong all such as are used to describe the elements of the year, civil or ecclesiastical.


Absoluo. Absolutio—Absolution.
Alr. Aliter—Otherwise.
Aplica. Apostolica—Apostolic.
Appatis. Approbatis—Having been approved.
Archiepus. Archiepiscopus—Archbishop.
Aucte. Auctoritate—By the Authority.
Canice. Canonice—Canonically.
Card. Cardinalis—Cardinal.
Cens. Censuris—Censures (abl. or dat. case).
Circumpeone. Circumspectione—Circumspection (abl. case).
Coione. Communione—Communion (abl. case).
Confeone. ConfessionConfession (Al. case).
Consciae. Conscientin—Of [or to] conscience.
Constbus Constitutionibus—Constitutions (abl. or dat. case).
Discreoni. Discretion—To the Discretion.
Dispensao. Dispensatio—Dispensation.
Dnus. Dominus—Lord, Sir, or Mr.
Ecclae. Ecclesiae—Of [or to] the Church
Ecclis. Ecclesiasticis—Ecclesiastical.
Effum. Effectum—Effect.
Epus. Episcopus—Bishop.
Excoe. Excommunicatione—Excommunication (abl. case).
Exit. Existit—Exists.
Fr. Frater—Brother.
Frum. Fratrum—Of the Brothers.
Gnalis. Generalis—General.
Humil. Humiliter—Humbly.
Humoi. Hujusmodi—Of this kind.
Igr. Igitur—Therefore.
Infraptum. Infrascriptum—Written below.
Intropta. Introscripta—Written within.
Irregulte. Irregularitate—Irregularity (abl. case).
Lia. Licentia—License.
Litma. Legitima—Lawful.
Lre. Litterae—Letters.
Lte. Licite—Lawfully, or licitly.
Magro. Magistro—Master (dat. or abl. case).
Mir. Misericorditer—Mercifully.
Miraone. Miseratione—Pity (abl. case).
Mrimonium. Matrimonium—Matrimony.
Nultus. Nullatenus—Nowise.
Ordinaoni. Ordinationi—Ordination (dat. case).
Ordio. Ordinario—Ordinary (dat. or abl. case).
Pbr. Presbyter—Priest.
Penia. Pcenitentia—Penance, or repentance.
Peniaria. Pcenitentiaria—Penitentiary (i.e. Bureau of the Apostolic Penitentiary).
Pntium. Prmsentium—Of those present, or, Of this present writing.
Poe. Posse—To be able, or, The ability to do a thing.
Pontus. Pontificatus—Pontificate.
PP. Papa—Pope.
Pr. Pater—Father.
Pror. Procurator.
Ptur. Praefertur—Is preferred, or, Is brought forward.
Ptus. Praefatus—Aforesaid.
Qd. Quod—Because, That, or, Which.
Qmlbt. Quomodolibet—In any manner whatsoever.
Qtnus. Quatenus—In so far as.
Relione. Religione—Religion, or, Religious Order (abl. case).
Rlari. Regulari—Regular.
Roma. Romana—Roman.
Salri. Salutari—Salutary.
Snia. Sententia—Opinion.
Big} Sanctae—Holy, or, Saints (feminine).
Spealer. Specialiter—Specially.
Spualibus Spiritualibus—In spiritual matters.
Supplioni. Supplicationibus—Supplication (dat. or abl. case).
Big} Theologia—Theology.
Tli. Tituli—Titles.
Tm. Tantum—So much, or, Only.
Tn. Tamen—Nevertheless.
Venebli. Venerabili—Venerable.
Vrae. Vestrae—Your.


A. B. Artium Baccalaureus—Bachelor of Arts.
Ab. Abbas—Abbot.
Abp. Archbishop.
Abs. Absens—Absent.
A. C. Auditor Camerae—Auditor of the Papal Treasury.
A. C. Ante Christum—Before Christ.
A. C. N. Ante Christum Natum—Before the Birth of Christ.
A. D. Anno Domini—Year of Our Lord.
a. d. ante diem—The day before.
Adm. Rev. Admodum Reverendus—Very Reverend.
Adv. Adventus—Advent.
Alb. Albus—White (Br.).
al. alii, alibi, alias—others, elsewhere, otherwise.
A. M. Anno Mundi—Year of the World.
A. M. Artium Magister—Master of Arts.
A. M. D. G. Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam—For the greater glory of God.
An. Annus—Year.
Ann. Anni—Years.
Big} Antiphon.
Apost. Apostolus—Apostle.
Ap. Sed. Apostolica Sedes—Apostolic See.
Ap. Sed. Leg. Apostolic ae Sedis Legatus—Legate of the Apostolic See.
Archiep. Archiepiscopus—Archbishop.
Archid. Archidiaconus—Archdeacon.
Archiprb. Archipresbyter—Archpriest.
A. R. S. Anno Reparatae Salutis—In the year of Our Redemption.
A. U. Alma Urbs—Beloved City (Rome).
Authen. Authentica—Authentic (e. g. letters).
Aux. Auxilium, Auxilio—Help, With the help of.
B. A. Baccalaureus Artium—Bachelor of Arts.
B., BB. Beatus, Beati—Blessed.
B. C. Before Christ.
B. C. L. Baccalaureus Civilis [or Canonicae] Legis—Bachelor of Civil [or Canon] Law.
B. D. Bachelor of Divinity.
B. F. Bona Fide—In Good Faith.
Ben. Benedictio—Blessing.
Benevol. Benevolentia—Benevolence.
Bon. Mem. Bone Memoriae—Of Happy Memory.
B. P. Beatissime Pater—Most Holy Father.
Bro. Brother.
B. Sc. Baccalaureus Scientiarum—Bachelor of Sciences.
B. U. J. Baccalaureus Utriusque Juris Bachelor of Both Laws (civil and canon).
B. T. Baccalaureus Theologian—Bachelor of Theology.
B. V. Beatitudo Vestra—Your Holiness.
B. V. Beata Virgo—Blessed Virgin.
B. V. M. Beata Virgo Maria—Blessed Virgin Mary.
Cam. Camera (Papal Treasury).
Cam. Ap. Camera Apostolica—Apostolic Camera (Papal Treasury).
Can. Canonicus.
Canc. Cancellarius—Chancellor.
Cap. Capitulum—Little Chapter (Br).
Cap. de seq. Capitulum de Sequenti—Little chapter of the following feast (Br.).
Capel. Capella—Chapel.
Caus. Causa—Cause.
C. C. Curatus—Curate (used chiefly in Ireland).
CC. VV. Clarissimi Viri—Illustrious Men.
Cen. Eccl. Censura Ecclesiastica—Ecclesiastical Censure.
Cla. Clausula—Clause.
Cl., Clico. Clericus, Clerico—Cleric.
Clun. Cluniacenses—Monks of Cluny.
C. M. Causa Mortis—On occasion of death
Cod. Codex—Manuscript.
Cog. Leg. Cognatio Legalis—Legal Cognation. Gen.
Cog. Spir. Cognatio Spiritualis—Spiritual Cognation.
Coll. Conc. Collectio Conciliorum—Collection of the Councils.
Comm. Prec. Commemoratio Praecedentis—Commemoration of the preceding feast (Br.).
Comm. Seq. Commemoratio Sequentis—Commemoration of the following feast (Br.).
Compl. Completorium—Compline (Br.).
Con. Contra—against.
Conc. Concilium—Council.
Conf. Confessor.
Conf. Doct. Confessor et Doctor (Br.).
Conf. Pont. Confessor Pontifex—Confessor and Bishop (Br.).
Cons. Consecratio—Consecration.
Consecr. Consecratus—Consecrated.
Const. Ap. Constitutio Apostolica—Apostolic Constitution.
Cr. Credo—Creed (Br.).
D. Dominus—Lord.
d. dies—day.
D. C. L. Doctor Civilis [or Canonicae] Legis—Doctor of Civil [or Canon] Law.
D. D. Doctores—Doctors.
D. D. Donum dedit; Dedicavit—Gave, dedicated.
D. D. Doctor Divinitatis—Doctor of Divinity (i. e. Theology).
Dec. Decanus—Dean.
Def. Defunctus—Deceased.
D. G. Dei Gratia—By the Grace of God.
D. N. Dominus Noster—Our Lord.
D. N. J. C. Dominus Noster Jesus Christus—Our Lord Jesus Christ.
Big} Dominus—Lord.
Doct. Doctor (Br.).
Dom. Dominica—Sunday.
D. O. M. Deo Optimo Maximo—To God, the Best and Greatest.
Doxol. Doxologia—Doxology (Br.).
D. R. Decanus Ruralis—Rural Dean.
DS Deus—God.
D. Sc. Doctor Scientiarum—Doctor of Sciences.
D. V. Deo Volente—God willing.
Dupl. Duplex—Double feast (Br.).
Dupl. Maj. Duplex Major—Double Major feast T. (Br.).
Dupl. I. Cl. Duplex Primae Classis—Double First Litt. Class feast (Br.). LL. B.
Dupl. II. CI. Duplex Secund Classis—Double Second Class feast (Br.).
Eccl. Ecclesiasticus—Ecclesiastic.
E., Eccl. Ecclesia—The Church. Loc.
El. Electio, Electus—Election, Elect.
Emus Eminentissimus—Most Eminent.
Bigg} Episcopus—Bishop.
Et. Etiam—Also, Even.
Evang. Evangelium—Gospel (Br.).
Ex. Extra—Outside of.
Exc. Excommunicatus, Excommunicatio Mand.—Excommunicated, Excommunication.
Fel. Mein. Felicis Memorim—Of Happy Memory.
Fel. Rec. Felicis Recordationis—Of Happy Mart., M., MM Memory.
Fer. Feria—Weekday.
Fr., F. Frater, Frere—Brother.
Fund. Fundatio—Foundation.
Gen. Generalis—General.
Gl. Gloria—Glory to God, etc.
Gr. Gratia—Grace.
Grad. Gradus—Grade.
Grat. Gratias—Thanks; or Gratis—Without expense.
hebd. Hebdomada—Week.
Hom. Homilia—Homily (Br.).
hor hora—hour.
IC Jesus—first and third letters of His name in Greek.
ID Idus—Ides.
Igr Igitur—Therefore.
I.H.S. (I)Jesus Hominum Salvator (usual interpretation), Jesus Saviour of Men. Really a faulty Latin transliteration of the first three letters of JESUS in Greek (IHS for IHC).
Ind. Indictio—Indiction.
Ind. Index.
Inq. Inquisitio—Inquisition.
i.p.i in partibus infidelium—among the infidels.
Is Idus—Ides.
J.C. Jesus Christus—Jesus Christ.
J.C.D. Juris Canonici Doctor; Juris Civilis DoctorDoctor of Canon Law or of Civil Law.
J.D. Juris DoctorDoctor of Law.
J.M.J Jesus, Maria, Joseph—Jesus, Mary, Joseph.
Jo., Joann. Joannes—John.
J.U.D. Juris Utriusque DoctorDoctor of Both Laws (Sc. Civil and Canon).
Jud. Judicium—Judgment.
J.U.L. Juris Utriusque Licentiatus—Licentiate of Both Laws.
Jur. Juris—Of Law.
Kal. Kalendm—Calends.
Laic. Laicus—Layman.
Laud. Laudes—Lauds (Br.).
L.C.D. Legis Civilis DoctorDoctor of Civil Law.
l.c.; loc. cit. loco citato—at the place already cited.
Lect. Lectio—Lesson.
Legit. Legitime, Legitimus—Legally, legitimate.
L.H.D. Litterarum Humaniorum DoctorDoctor of Literature.
Lib., Lo. Liber, Libro—Book, In the book.
Lic. Licentia, Licentiatus—License, Licentiate.
Litt. Littera—Letter.
LL.B Legum Baccalaureus—Bachelor of Laws.
LL.D. Legum DoctorDoctor of Laws.
L.L.M. Legum Magister—Master of Laws.
Loc. Locus—Place.
Lov. Lovanium—Louvain.
Lovan. Lovanienses—Theologians of Louvain.
L.S. Loco Sigilli—Place of the Seal.
Lud. Ludovicus.
M. Maria—Mary.
M.A. Magister Artium—Master of Arts.
Mag. Magister—Master.
Mand. Mandamus—We command.
Mand. Ap. Mandatum Apostolicum—Apostolic Mandate, e. g. for a bishop’s consecration.
Mart., M., MM Martyr, Martyres—Martyr, Martyrs (Br.).
Mat. Matutinum—Matins (Br.).
Matr. Matrimonum—Marriage.
Mgr. Monseigneur, Monsignore—My Lord.
Miss. Missa, Missionarius—Mass (Br.); Missionary.
Miss. Apost.,
M. A.
Big} Missionarius Apostolicus—Missionary Apostolic.
M. R. Missionarius Rector—Missionary Rector.
m. t. v. mutatur terminatio versiculi—the termination of the little verse is changed (Br.).
D. N. J. C.
Big} Nativitas Domini Nostri Jesu Christi—Nativity of Our Lord Jesus Christ.
N. D. Nostra Domina, Notre Dame—Our Lady.
Nigr. Niger—Black (Br.).
No. Nobis—to us, for us.
Nob. Nobilis, Nobiles—Noble, Nobles.
Noct. Nocturnum—Nocturn.
Non. Nonce—Nones.
Nostr. Noster, nostri—Our, of our.
Not. Notitia—Knowledge.
N. S. Notre Seigneur, Nostro Signore—Our Lord.
N. S. New Style.
N. T. Novum Testamentum—New Testament.
Ntri. Nostri—Of our.
Nup. Nuptise—Nuptials.
Ob. Obiit—Died.
Oct. Octava—Octave (Br.).
Omn. Omnes, Omnibus—All, to all.
Op. Cit. Opere Citato—In the work cited.
Or. Oratio—Prayer (Br.).
Ord. Ordo, Ordinatio, Ordinarius—Order, Ordination, Ordinary.
Or. Orat. Orator, Oratorium—Petitioner, Oratory.
O. S. Old Style.
O. T. Old Testament.
Oxon. Oxonium, Oxonienses—Oxford, Theologians or Scholars of Oxford.
P. Pater, Pere—Father.
Pa. Big{ Papa—Pope.
Pact. Pactum—Agreement.
Pasch. Pascha—Easter (Br.).
Patr. Patriarcha—Patriarch.
Pent. Pentecostes—Pentecost (Br.).
Ph. B. Philosophise Baccalaureus—Bachelor of Philosophy.
Ph. D. Philosophise DoctorDoctor of Philosophy.
Phil. Philosophia—Philosophy.
Ph. M. Philosophise Magister—Master of Philosophy.
P. K. Pridie Kalendas—The day before the Calends.
Pcenit. Pcenitentia—Penance.
Pcenit. Ap. Pcenitentiaria Apostolica—Office of the Apostolic Penitentiary.
Pont. Pontifex—Pontiff, Bishop (Br.).
Pont. Pontificatus—Pontificate.
Pont. Max. Pontifex Maximus—Supreme Pontiff.
Poss. Possessor, Possessio—Possessor, Possession.
PP. Papa—Pope; Pontificum—Of the popes.
P. P. Parochus—Parish Priest (used mostly in Ireland).
PP. AA. Patres Amplissimi—Cardinals.
P. P. P. Propria Pecunia Posuit—Erected at his own expense.
P. It. Permanens Rector—Permanent Rector.
Praef. Praefatio—Preface of the Mass (Br.).
Big} Presbyter—Priest.
Prof. Professus, Professio, Professor, Professed, Profession, Professor.
Prop. Fid. Propaganda Fide—Congregation of the Propaganda, Rome.
Propr. Proprium—Proper (Br.).
Prov. Provisio, Provisum—Provision, Provided.
Ps. Psalmus—Psalm.
Pub., Publ. Publicus, Publice—Public, Publicly.
Purg. Can. Purgatio Canonica—Canonical Disculpation.
Quadrag. QuadragesimaLent, also the Fortieth day before Easter (Br.).
Quinquag. Quinquagesima—The Fiftieth day before Easter (Br.).
R. Responsorium—Responsory (Br.).
R. Roma.
Rescr. Rescriptum—Rescript.
R. D. Rural Dean.
Req. Requiescat—May he [or she] rest, i. e. in peace.
Resp. Responsum—Reply.
R. I. P. Requiescat In Pace—May he or she rest in peace.
Rit. Ritus—Rite, Rites.
Rom. Romanus, Romana—Roman.
R. P. Reverendus Pater, Reverend Pere Reverend Father.
RR. Bigg{ Rerum—Of Things, Subjects,
e. g. SS. RR. Ital.—Writers on Italian (historical) subjects.
Rt. Rev. Right Reverend.
Rub. Ruber—Red (Br.).
Rubr. Rubrica—Rubric.
S., Sacr. Sacrum—Sacred.
Sab., Sabb. Sabbatum—Sabbath, Saturday.
Ssec. Saeculum—Century.
Sal. Salus, Salutis—Salvation, of Salvation.
Salmant. Salmanticenses—Theologians of Salamanca.
S. C. Sacra Congregatio—Sacred Congregation.
S. C. C. Sacra Congregatio Concilii—Sacred Congregation of the Council, i. e. of Trent.
S. C. EE. RR. Sacra Congregatio Episcoporum et Regularium—Sacred Congregation of Bishops and Regulars.
S. C. I. Sacra Congregatio lndicis—Sacred Congregation of the Index.
S. C. P. F. Sacra Congregatio de Propaganda Fide—Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith.
SCS Sanctus—Saint.
s. d. sine data—undated book.
S. D. Servus Dei—Servant of God.
Semid. Semiduplex—Semi double feast (Br.).
Septuag. Septuagesima, seventieth day (always a Sunday) before Easter (Br.).
Sexag. Sexagesima, sixtieth day before Easter (Br.).
Sig. Sigillum—Seal.
Simpl. Simplex—Simple feast (Br.).
Sine Corn. Sine Commemoratione—Without commemoration of other feast, or feasts (Br.).
s. l. sine loco—without indication of place of printing.
s. l. n. d. sine loco nec data—without indication of place or date of printing.
S. M. Sancta Memorise——Of Holy Memory.
Soc. Socius Socii—Companion, Companions (Br.).
S. Off. Sanctum Officium—Congregation of the Holy Office (Inquisition).
S. P. Sanctissime Pater—Most Holy Father.
S. P., S. Petr. Sanctus Petrus—St. Peter.
S. P. Summus Pontifex—Supreme Pontiff, Pope.
S. P. A. Sacrum Palatium Apostolicum—Sacred Apostolic Palace, Vatican, Quirinal.
Sr. Sister.
S. R. C. Sacra Rituum Congregatio—Sacred Congregation of Rites.
S. R. E. Sancta Romana Ecclesia, Sanctm Romance Ecclesim—Most Holy Roman Church; or, of the Most Holy Roman Church.
SS. Scriptores—Writers.
SS. D. N. Sanctissimus Dominus Noster—Our Most Holy Lord (Jesus Christ), also a title of the Pope.
S., SS. Sanctus, Sancti—Saint, Saints.
S. T. B. Sacrce Theologise Baccalaureus—Bachelor of Sacred Theology.
S. T. D. Sacra Theologise DoctorDoctor of Sacred Theology.
S. T. L. Sacra Theologie Licentiatus—Licentiate of Sacred Theology.
Suffr. Suffragia—Suffrages (Br.); prayers of the saints.
S. V. Sanctitas Vestra—Your Holiness.
Syn. Synodus—Synod.
Temp. Tempus, Tempore—Time, in time.
Test. Testes, Testimonium—Witnesses, Testimony.
Theol. Theologia—Theology.
Tit. Titulus, Tituli—Title, Titles.
Ult. Ultimo—Last (day, month, year).
Usq. Usque—As far as.
Ux. Uxor—Wife.
V., Ven., VV. Venerabilis, Venerabiles—Venerable.
V., Vest. Vester—Your.
Vac. Vacat, Vacans—Vacant.
Val. Valor—Value.
Vat. Vaticanus—Vatican.
Vba. Verba—Words.
Big} Versiculus—Versicle (Br.).
Vesp. Vespere—Vespers (Br.).
V. F., Vic. For. Vicarius Foraneus—Vicar-Forane.
V. G. Vicarius Generalis—Vicar-General.
Vid. Vidua—Widow (Br.).
Vid., Videl. Videlicet—Namely.
Vig. Vigilia—Vigil of a feast (Br.).
Viol. Violaceus—Violet (Br.).
Virg. Virgo—Virgin (Br.).
Virid. Viridis—Green (Br.).
V. M. Vir Magnificus—Great Man.
V. Rev. Very Reverend.
V. T. Vetus Testamentum.
XC., XCS. Christus—Christ (first, middle, and last letters of the Greek name).


A. D. Ante Diem—e. g. in the phrase, “Ante Diem VI [or Sextum] Kai. Apriles,” is equivalent to the sixth day before the Calends of April, counting both the Calends and the day intended to be indicated; or Anima Dulcis—Sweet Soul.
A. Q. I. C. Anima Quiescat In Christo-May his [or her] Soul Repose in Christ.
B., BMT. Bene Merenti—To the Well-Deserving.
B. M. Bone Memorim—Of Happy Memory.
B. F. Bonne Feminae—To the Good Woman
B. I. C. Bibas [for Vivas] In Christo—Mayest thou Live In Christ.
B. M. F. Bene Merenti Fecit—He erected this to the Well-Deserving.
B. Q. Bene Quiescat—May he [or she] Rest Well.
C. Consul.
CC. Consules—Consuls.
C. F. Clarissima Femina—Most Illustrious Woman.
Cl. V. Clarissimus Vir—Most Illustrious Man.
C. O. Conjugi Optimo—To my Excellent Husband.
C. O. B. Q. Cum Omnibus Bonis Quiescat May he [or she] Repose With All Good souls.
COI. Conjugi—To my Husband [or Wife].
CS., COS. Consul.
COSS. Consules—Consuls.
C. P. Clarissima Puella—Most Illustrious Maiden.
D. Depositus—Laid to rest; or Dulcis—Dear One.
D. D. Dedit, Dedicavit-Gave, Dedicated.
DEP. Depositus—Laid to rest.
D. I. P. Dormit In Pace—Sleeps in Peace.
D. M. Diis Manibus—To the Manes [of].
D. M. S. Diis Manibus Sacrum—Sacred to the Manes [of].
D. N. Domino Nostro—To Our Lord.
DD. NN. Dominis Nostris—To Our Lords.
E. V. Ex Voto—In Fulfilment of a Vow.
EX. TM. Ex Testamento—In accordance with the Testament of.
E VIV. DISC. E Vivis Discessit—Departed from Life.
F. Fecit—Did; or Filius—Son; or Feliciter—Happily.
F. C.
F. F.
Fieri Curavit
Fieri Fecit
Big} —Caused to be Made.
FF Big{ Fratres—Brothers.
FS. Fossor—Digger.
H. Big{ Hmres—Heir.
H. L. S. Hoc Loco Situs—Laid [or Put] in This Place.
H. M. F. F. Hoc Monumentum Fieri Fecit-Caused This Monument to be Made.
H. S. Hic Situs—Laid Here.
ID. Idibus—On the Ides.
IDNE. Indictione—In the Indiction [a chronological term].
I. L. H. Jus Liberorum Ilabens—Possessing the Right of Children [i. e. eligibility to public office under age].
INB. In Bono—In Good [odor].
IND. Same as IDNE.
INP. In Pace—In Peace.
I. X. In Christo—In Christ.
K. Kalendas—Calends; or Care, Carus, Cara—Dear One; or Carissimus(-a)—Dearest.
K. B. M. Karissimo Bene Merenti—To the Most Dear and Well-deserving.
L. Locus—Place.
L. M. Locus Monumenti—Place of the Monument.
L. S. Locus Selpuchri—Place of the Sepulchre.
M. Martyr, or Memoria—Memory; or Monumentum—Monument.
MM. Martyres—Martyrs.
M. P. Monumentum Posuit—Erected a Monument.
MRT. Merenti—To the Deserving.
N. Nonas—Nones; or Numero—Number.
NN. Nostris—To Our [with a plural]; or Numeri—Numbers.
O. Hora—Hour; Obiit—Died.
OB.IN XTO. Obiit In Christo—Died In Christ.
OMS. Omnes—All.
OP. Optimus—Excellent, or Supremely Good.
P. Pax—Peace; or Pius—Dutiful; or Ponendum—To be Placed; or Pridie—The Day Before; or Plus —More.
P. C. Poni Curavit—Caused to be Placed.
P. C.
Big} Post Consulatum—After the Consulate.
P. I. Poni Jussit—Ordered to be Placed.
P. M. Plus Minus—More or Less; or Pine Memori—Of Pious Memory; or Post Mortem—After Death.
PP. Praepositus—Placed over.
PR. K. Pridie Kalendas—The Day Before the Calends.
PRB. Presbyter—Priest.
PR. N. Pridie Nonas—The Day Before the Nones.
P. T. C. S. Pax Tibi Cum Sanctis—Peace to Thee With the Saints.
PZ. Pie Zeses—(Gr.) Mayest thou Live Piously.
Big} Quiescit—He Rests. Qui.
Q. B. AN. Qui Bixit [for Vixit] Annos—Who lived—years.
Q. I. P. Quiescat In Pace—May he [or she] Rest in Peace.
Q. V. Qui Vixit—Who Lived.
R. Requiescit—He Rests; or Refrigerio —In [a place of] Refreshment.
Reg. Regionis—Of the Region.
S. Suus—His; or Situs—Placed; or Sepulchrum—Sepulchre.
SC. M. Sancti Memorim—Of Holy Memory.
SD. Sedit—He sat.
SSA. Subscripta—Subscribed.
S. I. D. Spiritus In Deo—Spirit [rests] in God.
S. P. Sepultus—Buried; or Sepulchrum—Sepulchre.
SS. Sanctorum—Of the Saints.
S. V. Sacra Virgo—Holy Virgin.
T. TT. Titulus, Tituli—Title, Titles.
TM. Testamentum—Testament.
V. Vixit—He Lived; or Vixisti—Thou didst—Live.
VB. Vir Bonus—A Good Man.
V. C. Vir Clarissimus—A Most Illustrious Man.
VV. CC. Viri Clarissimi—Most Illustrious Men.
V. H. Vir Honestus—A Worthy Man.
V. X. Vivas, Care [or Cara]—Mayest thou Live, Dear One; or Uxor Carissima—Most Dear Wife.
Bigg} Christus.


A. A. Augustiniani Assumptionis—Assumptionists.
A. B. A. Antoniani Benedictini Armeni—Mechitarists.
C. J. M. Congregatio Jesu et Marine—Eudist Fathers.
C. M. Congregatio Missionis—Lazarists.
C. M. Congregatio MariH—Fathers of the Company of Mary.
C. P. Congregatio Passionis—Passionists.
C. PP. S. Congregatio Pretiosissimi Sanguinis —Fathers of the Most Precious Blood.
C. R. Congregatio Resurrectionis—Resurrectionist Fathers.
C. R. C. S. Clerici Regulares Congregationis Somasch—Somaschi N athers.
C. R. I. C. Canonici Regulares Immaculatae Conceptionis—Canons Regular of the Immaculate Conception.
C. R. L. Canonici Regulares Lateranenses-Canons Regular of the Lateran.
C. R. M. Clerici Regulares Minores—Clerks Regular Minor, Mariani.
C. R. M. D. Clerici Regulares Matris Dei—Clerks Regular of the Mother of God.
C. R. M. I. Clerici Regulares Ministrantes Infirmis—Clerks Regular Attendant on the Sick, Camillini, Camilliani.
C. R. P. Congregatio Reformatorum Priemonstratensium—Premonstratensians.
C. R. S. P. Clerici Regulares Sancti Pauli—Barnabites.
C. R. S. P. Clerici Regulares Pauperum Matris Dei Scholarum Piarum—Clerks Regular of the Poor Men of the Mother of God for Pious Schools, Piarists.
C. R. T. Clerici Regulares Theatini—Theatines.
C. S. B. Congregatio Sancti Basilii—Basilians.
C. S. C. Congregatio Sancti Crucis—Fathers and Brothers of the Holy Cross.
C. S. P. Congregatio Sancti Pauli—Paulists.
C. S. Sp. Congregatio Sancti Spiritus—Fathers of the Holy Ghost.
C. S. V. Clerici Sancti Viatoris—Clerks, or Clerics, of St. Viateur.
C. SS. CC. Congregatio Sacratissimorum Cordium—Missionaries of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary.
C. SS. R. Congregatio Sanctissimi Redemptoris—Redemptorists.
Inst. Char. Institutum Charitatis—Rosminians.
M. S. Missionaries of La SaIette (France).
M. S. C. Missionarii Sancti Caroli—Missionaries of St. Charles.
M. S. C. Missionarii Sacratissimi Cordis—Missionaries of the Most Sacred Heart.
O. C. Ordo Charitatis—Fathers of the Order of Charity.
O. Camald. Ordo Camaldulensium—Camaldolese.
O. Cart. Ordo Cartusiensis—Carthusians.
O. Cist. Ordo Cisterciensium—Cistercians.
O. C. C. Ordo Carmelitarum Calceatorum—Carmelites.
O. C. D. Ordo Carmelitarum Discalceatorum —Discalced, or Barefoot, Carmelites.
O. C. R. Ordo Reformatorum Cisterciensium —Cistercians, Trappists.
O. F. M. Ordo Fratrum Minorum—Observant Franciscans.
O. M. Ordo (Fratrum) Minimorum—Minims of St. Francis of Paul.
O. Merced. Ordo Beatne Marine Virginis de Redemptione Captivorum—Mercedarians, Nolaschi.
O. M. C. Ordo Minorum Conventualium—Conventual Franciscans.
O. M. Cap.
O. M. C.
Big} Ordo Minorum Cappucinorum—Capuchins.
O. M. I. Oblati Mariae Immaculatae—Oblate Fathers of Mary Immaculate. O. P.
O. Pr.
Ord. Fratr. Praed.
Bigg} Ordo Praedicatorum—Dominicans.
Ord. Praem. Ordo Praemonstratensium—Premonstratensians, Norbertines.
O. S. A. Ordo (Eremitarum) Sancti Augustini—Augustinians.
O. S. B. Ordo Sancti Benedicti—Benedictines.
O. S. C. Oblati Sancti Caroli—Oblate Fathers of St. Charles.
O. S. F. C. Ordinis Sancti Francisci Capuccini–Franciscan Capuchins.
O. S. F. S. Oblati Sancti Francisci Salesii—Oblate Fathers of St. Francis of Sales.
O. S. H. Ordo (Eremitarum) Sancti Hieronymi—Hieronymites.
O. S. M. Ordo Servorum Mariw—Servites.
O. SS. C. Oblati Sacratissimi Cordis—Oblate Fathers of the Sacred Heart.
O. Trinit. Ordo Sanctissimaa Trinitatis—Trinitarians.
P. O. Pretres de l’Oratoire, Presbyteri Oratorii—Oratorians.
P. S. M. Pia Societas Missionum—Fathers of the Pious Society of Missions, Pallottini.
P. S. S. Presbyteri Sancti Sulpicii, Pretres de S. Sulpice—Sulpicians.
S. C. Salesianorum Congregatio (Congregation of St. Francis of Sales)—Salesian Fathers.
S. D. S. Societas Divini Salvatoris—Society of the Divine Saviour.
S. D. V. Societas Divini Verbi—Fathers of the Divine Word.
S. J. Societas Jesu—Jesuits.
S. M. Societas Mariae—Marists.
S. P. M. Societas Patrum Misericordiae–Fathers of Mercy.
S.S.S. Societas Sanctissimi Sacramenti—Fathers of the Blessed Sacrament.

Most manuals of palaeography (Greek and Latin) contain lists of Abbreviations (ancient and medieval), some of which are yet of ecclesiastical interest, while others have long since become obsolete or rare, and concern only the reader of manuscripts. Some manuals of diplomatics, likewise, have useful lists of pontifical chancery Abbreviations, e.g. QUANTIN, Dict. de dipwmatique chretienne (Paris, 1846), 26-42, and PROU (Paris, 1902). In the latter work may be seen the original script-forms of these Abbreviations. Facsimiles of abbreviated pontifical documents may be seen, e.g. in DENIFLE, Specimina Paloeographica ab Innoc. III ad Urban V. (Rome, 1888). The Abbreviations in Greek manuscripts were first scientifically studied by the Benedictine MONTFAUCON in his famous Paloeographia Graeca (Paris, 1708); see the Introductions to Greek Paloeography of GARDTHAUSEN and WATTENBACH.—The little work, Modus legendi abreviaturas in jure tam civili quam pontificio occurrentes (Venice, 1596), is one of the earliest attempts at a dictionary of medieval abbreviations. A very useful work for all Latin abbreviations is that of CAPELLI, Dizionario delle abbreviature latine ed italiane (Milan, 1900); it is written mostly in Latin and describes all the abbreviations ordinarily used in Latin and Italian documents, civil or ecclesiastical. Other valuable works dealing specifically with abbreviations in pontifical documents are DE LA BRANA, Signos Y Abreviaturas que se usan en los documentos pontificios (Leon, 1884); RODENBERG, Epistolae saec. XIII e regestis RR.PP. selectae (Berlin, 1883), I, 323.—For an extensive list of the abbreviations in the epitaphs of the Catacombs see KRAUS, Real-Encycl. der christl. Alterth. (Freiburg, 1886), I, 47-51. The chapters on abbreviations of medieval manuscripts in the palaeographical manuals of DE WAILLY (Paris, 1843), CHASSANT (Paris, 1885), PAOLI (Florence, 1891), REUSENS (Louvain, 1899), CARINI (Rome, 1889), and THOMPSON (London, 1903) are recommended, also the excellent Lateinische Palaographie of STEFFENS (Freiburg, Switzerland, 1903, 3 vols. fol. with many plates). See [BATTANDIER, Abbreviations, in Ann. Pont. Cath. (Paris 1900), 527-538.


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