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How Do We Counter the Charge That the Addition of “Filioque” Was an Illicit Alteration of the Creed?

Question:

Some Eastern Orthodox claim that the Catholic Church is under anathema because it added the word filioque ("and the Son") to the Nicene Creed after the declaration that the Spirit proceeds from the Father. This was illicit, they say, because the Council of Ephesus condemned anyone who composes a new creed. How should we reply?

Answer:

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