Valladolid, Archdiocese of (VALLISOLETANA), bounded on the north by Palencia, east by Burgos and Segovia, south by Avila and Salamanca, and west by Zamora. Excepting two towns, it comprises the civil Province of Valladolid, and has in its territory six towns which are alternately one year under its jurisdiction and the next under that of the Diocese of Avila. Its suffragan dioceses are Astorga, Avila, Segovia, Salamanca, Zamora, and Ciudad Real. Valladolid (60,000) is built on the site of an ancient Roman city, and remains of Roman ruins are to be found, but it does not seem to be the Pintia which Antoninus says was 106 miles from Astorga. Probably it was founded by the Moors and given the name of Mid or Walid. The first mention of it is found in the “Cronica de Cardena” as one of the towns which Sancho II offered to his sister Dona Urraca in exchange for Zamora, the seigniory of which had been conferred upon her by her father. The real founder of Valladolid was the Castilian Count Ansürez to whom Al-fonso VI ceded it in 1074. He built the churches of Santa Maria la Antigua and Santa Maria la Mayor, founded the parish of San Nicolas, but he seems to have found already existing the churches of San Julian and San Pelayo. He built the great bridge over the Pisuerga and two hospitals near his own palace. On May 21, 1095, the Church of Santa Maria la Mayor was dedicated by D. Bernardo, Archbishop of Toledo, assisted by the Archbishops of Palencia, and many other bishops and noted personages. An-sürez and his wife Eylo conferred vast territories upon the abbot and chapter of the collegiate church, for purposes of colonization. This grant consisted of the monasteries of San Julian and San Pelayo, lands in Tierra de Campos, and a great stretch of land between the branches of the River Esgueva.
The first abbots of Valladolid in the twelfth century were Saltus or Agaldus; Hervieus; Pedro; Martin; Juan; Miguel; and Domingo; in the thirteenth, Juan Dominguez, counsellor of St. Ferdinand; D. Felipe, son of St. Ferdinand; D. Sancho de Aragon, son of Jaime I; D. Martin Alonso, illegitimate son of Alfonso the Wise; and Gomez Garcia of Toledo; in the fourteenth, Juan Fernandez de Limia, later Archbishop of Santiago; and Fernando Alvarez de Albornoz cousin of the celebrated cardinal; in the fifteenth, Diego Gomez de Fuensalida; Cardinal Pedro de Fonseca; the famous Alfonso de Madrigal, called “el Tostado”, Cardinal Fr. Juan de Torquemada; Cardinal D. Pedro de Mendoza; and in the sixteenth century, D. Fernando Enriquez, son of the admiral, D. Alfonso Enriquez Villarroel; and D. Alfonso de Mendoza. In 1124, with the assistance of the Cardinal legate Adeodatus, a council of all the prelates of the kingdom was held at Valladolid, and in 1137 another, presided over by Cardinal Guido. On July 1, 1217, St. Ferdinand III was proclaimed king in this city, on the abdication of his mother Dona Berenguela.
In 1238 another council was held, over which the legate Bishop of Sabina presided. In order to terminate the disputes with Palencia, Philip II, who was born at Valladolid, wished to have it constituted a diocese, and Clement VIII erected it on September 25, 1595, and the king conferred on it a city charter. The first bishop was D. Bartolome de la Plaza, 1597, and among his successors D. Martin Delgado Cenarro (1743-53) deserves special mention. By the Concordat of 1851 the elevation of Valladolid to the rank of a metropolitan was stipulated, and Pius IX at the request of Isabella II issued the Decree for its erection on July 4, 1857. The first archbishop was D. Luis de Lastra y Cuesta, and his successors were Cardinal Juan Ignacio Moreno, Cardinal Benito Sanz y Fores, and the prelate who has just been raised to the cardinalitial dignity, D. Jose Cos y Macho. Many noted events have taken place at Valladolid: the marriage of Alfonso X and Dona Violante de Aragon and that of Alfonso XI to Dona Constanza; Columbus died there; and D. Alvaro de Luna was decapitated. The first auto da fe of the Spanish Inquisition was carried out at Valladolid, and the Cortes met there many times. The city owes much to the famous Dona Maria de Molina, wife of Sancho the Brave, regent during the minorities of Ferdinand IV and Alfonso XI. The latter conferred many distinctions upon Valladolid and gave it its university. The Court resided several times at Valladolid, the last time from 1601 to 1606 by wish of Philip III, who was much attached to the city.
Churches.—Santa Maria la Antigua was the parish church of the counts of Valladolid and was in existence as early as 1088. Behind the modern cathedral are the remains of the ancient cathedral of Santa Maria la Mayor, not as founded by the Conde Ansürez, but as restored a century and a half later. Bishop Lucas of Tuy says that the Abbot Juan, chancellor of St. Ferdinand, later Bishop of Osma, rebuilt and redecorated it, transferring the chapter meanwhile to Santa Maria la Antigua (1226). Its architecture is of the Transition period. Antolinez de Burgos, who lived in the sixteenth century, describes with enthusiasm its magnificent cloister. When the diocese was erected, Philip II engaged Juan de Herrera, the famous architect of the Escorial, to make the plans of the new cathedral. Herrera began the construction, but was obliged to go back to the Escorial, and was succeeded by D. Alberto de Churriguera, from whom the Spanish style of architecture Churrigueresco (Baroque) takes its name. Notwithstanding this, the influence of Herrera can be traced in the exterior. The principal facade has four Doric half columns, which support the entablature of the first story; between each column rises a magnificent arch overhanging a rectangular door over which is placed the figure of the Assumption, the titular of the cathedral. In the inter-columnar spaces are statues of Sts. Peter and Paul, and a door at each side. Two towers were to have finished the principal facade; of these one was never built beyond the first story, and the other which was finished collapsed in 1841. The interior is imposing; along the top is an open gallery finished with a balustrade. The tabernacle built by Juan de Arfe (1590) and the choir stalls, which were brought from the Dominican church, are two of the precious possessions of this cathedral.
The Dominican Convent of San Pablo, founded in 1276 by Dona Violante, wife of Alfonso X, the Wise, deserves special mention. Juan II lived there, and was temporarily buried there until his remains could be transferred to the Cartuja de Miraflores. It is a Gothic building, the most notable feature of which is the facade of its church, built at the expense of Cardinal Juan de Torquemada and Fr. Alonso de Burgos, Bishop of Palencia. Beside it is the Dominican College of San Gregorio, founded in 1488 by Fr. Alonso de Burgos, confessor of Isabella the Catholic. The famous Luis de Granada studied there. Its facade is the best of its kind on account of its original designs. Its cloister, with a double gallery, is also notable. The ancient College of Santa Cruz, founded by Cardinal Mendoza, a building in the plateresque style, has been converted into a museum, and contains many beautiful samples of religious sculptures. The ancient palacio real serves as a court building. This has a beautiful facade, with a tower at each side, and finished with a colonnade of alternating arches having square openings. The episcopal palace is a handsome building, and the conciliar seminary, founded by D. Bartolome de la Plaza in 1597 and rebuilt in 1847 by D. Jose Antonio Ribadeneyra, was made a pontifical university by Leo XIII in 1897.
Valladolid has secondary and normal schools, archaeological and art museums, and a library of 30,000 volumes. The Spanish cavalry school is situated here also. Among the charitable establishments may be mentioned the Hospital de la Resurreccion; the military hospital, formerly a convent of the Carmelites; the hospital de Esgueva; the Casa de Misericordia, occupying the ancient palace of the counts of Benavente; the asylums for mendicants.
—RAMON Ruiz AMADO.
UNIVERSITY OF VALLADOLID.—The name of the founder and the date of foundation of the University of Valladolid are not known with certainty. Its origin probably dates from 1260-64; in 1293 the university was in a most flourishing condition. Alfonso XI was the patron of Valladolid, just as Alfonso the Wise had been that of Salamanca. He provided a fixed revenue for the estudios, of one third the tithes received from Valladolid and its surrounding hamlets, conferred many honors on its professors, and finally petitioned Clement VI for papal authorization, which was given in the Bull of July 30, 1346. All the courses embraced by the great universities, including medicine and surgery, were installed, the latter branch being later separated and constituted a special course. According to Morejon (see bibl.), medical science in Spain substituted the system of Hippocrates for Arab methods much earlier than foreign writers have asserted. In 1513 the physician Barnadino Montana de Monserrata, in his book “Libro de la anatomia del hornbre” (folio 3), said that to study surgery it was necessary to go to either Montpellier, Bologna, or Valladolid. At Valladolid the lectures were so famous that Montana at the age of seventy was carried in a litter to hear the lectures of Prof. Alfonso Rodriguez de Guevara. The professor of surgery made twenty-five dissections in the general hospital each term. The professor and students of botany went into the country to make a practical study of plant life. The influence of the university was very great in both State and Church.
From the catalogue of famous students in the “Historia de Valladolid” the following names are taken: Juan Auves, doctor of canon law, librarian of Santa Cruz, and Bishop of Ciudad (d. 1549); Antolinez de Burgos, first historian of the city; Augustin Antolinez, Augustinian, professor of the university and of that of Salamanca; Tomas Arizmendi, counsellor of Castile; Lorenzo Arrazola, chief counsellor to the Crown; Pedro Avila y Soto, professor of the university, counsellor of the Indies and of Castile, criminal prosecutor for the Crown, and counsellor of the army; Gaspar R. Bravo de Somonte, professor and physician to Philip IV and Charles II; Breton y Simancas, Bishop and Viceroy of Naples; Pedro Cevallos, minister of Ferdinand VII; Agustin Esteban Collantes, minister of Isabella II; Dionisio Daza y Chacon, distinguished physician who rendered valuable services at Augsburg during the plague of 1564, was surgeon to Maximilian, the princess Dona Juana, physician of Don Carlos and Don Juan of Austria in the battle of Alpujarra; Diego Escudero, compiler of the “Nueva Recopilacion”; Jose Larra (Figaro), celebrated litterateur; Luis Mercado, prof., and physician to Philip II during the last twenty years of his life, an eminent writer greatly misunderstood by Sprengel; Claudio Moyano, educational reformer, professor, and afterwards minister under Isabella II; Jose Zorrilla, noted poet. The controversy between the Jesuits and the Dominicans with regard to grace and free will, which interested all the universities of Spain, involved the University of Valladolid even more deeply, as Diego Alverez, one of its professors, and Avendano, both Dominicans, opposed the doctrine of Molina. Of all the religious orders the Augustinians alone maintained an independent position. Their moderation contributed to dissipate much ill feeling aroused by the discussion. In 1770 certain royal privileges gave rise to heated controversy.
The early days of the university were mostly unpretentious; it had only seven courses, the deplorable state of the times not permitting anything else. The residence of the Court of Valladolid contributed to its development. In the various grants of privileges given by the kings the services rendered by this university to the Crown are explicitly stated. In the time of Charles V and Philip II the rank of a university was conferred upon it. In the time of Charles III the colleges which had grown up around the university were dealt their death blow by the ministry of Roda, and since then the university has suffered from the changes, reforms, and systems which the central government of Spain has imposed on all the universities.