Portugal.—I. GEOGRAPHY AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS.—Portugal is situated on the west of the Iberian Peninsula, being bounded on the north and east by Spain and on the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean. It lies between latitudes 37 and 42 north, and longitudes 61/ and 9 west of Greenwich. The form is approximately rectangular, with a maxi-mum length of 362 miles, a maximum breadth of 140 miles, and an area of 35,490 square miles. For purposes of administration it is officially divided into districts, but the old division into provinces (which originated in the differences of soil, climate, and character of the population) has not lost its meaning and is still employed in common parlance. The names of these provinces are Entre-Douro-e-Minho, Traz-os-Montes, Beira, Estremadura, Alemtejo, and Algarve. The island groups of Madeira with Porto Santo and the Azores are considered as part of Continental Portugal, the other possessions being colonies. Excluding these islands, Portugal has a sea-board of nearly 500 miles and a land frontier of about 620 miles, the greater part of which is marked by rivers or mountains. But though only a small portion of this frontier is conventional, Portugal and Spain are not separated by a strongly marked natural boundary such as divides some countries; indeed they are geographically one.
As regards the nature of the soil, Portugal may be roughly divided into three zones: (I) the northern, which is mountainous and rises from 1800 to 5000 feet, including the Serra do Gerez, notable for its vegetation and thermal springs; (2) the central, a zone of extensive plains divided by mountain ranges, among the latter being the Serra da Estrella (6540 feet), the highest and largest in the country; (3) the southern, the most extensive of the three, almost entirely composed of low-lying plains and plateaus of s m all altitude. In all these regions the mountains are usually prolongations of Spanish systems. The o n 1 y independent range of importance is the Serra de Monchique. Briefly, in the north, Portugal has many chains of mountains, plateaus of considerable height, and deep narrow valleys; in the center, together with high and extensive mountains, we find broad valleys and large plains. Lastly, south of the Tagus, the country is one of plains throughout the Alemtejo, but in the Algarve it again becomes hilly, though the altitudes are rarely considerable. The chief rivers are: (a) the Minho, which forms the northern frontier; (b) the Douro, which rises in Spain and enters the sea near Oporto, about one-third of its course being in Portugal; (c) the Mondego, the largest river rising in Portugal, which enters the sea at Figueira after a course of 140 miles; (d) the Tagus, which rises in Spain, forms above Lisbon a gulf more than eight miles wide, and enters the sea below that city, after a total course of nearly 500 miles, about one-third in Portugal; (e) the Sado, which flows out in a large estuary at Setubal; (f) the Guadiana, which serves in part as frontier between the two countries. The Tagus is navigable for small vessels as far as Santarem; the Guadiana, as far as Mertola. There are no lakes worthy of mention, the ria at Aveiro connecting with the sea.
Portugal has few good natural harbors. That of Lisbon is the best, and indeed one of the largest in Europe, and is of easy access at all times. The bar of the Douro is shallow and difficult; a fine artificial port has therefore been built at Leixoes to serve Oporto. Setubal is a fair harbor, as is Villa Real de S. Antonio, in the Algarve, while Lagos Bay, in the same province, affords a secure anchorage for a numerous fleet. The other ports are only suitable for small craft and are continually being blocked by sand. Portugal is rich in metalliferous deposits, including antimony, copper, manganese, uranium, lead, tin, and iron. Coal is scarce and of poor quality. The country has more than a hundred mineral springs, of which the most important are Gerez and Vizella (Minho), Vidago, Pedras Salgadas, and Moledo (Traz-os-Montes), S. Pedro do Sul and Felgueira (Beira Alta), Caldas da Rainha (Estremadura), Moura (Alemtejo), and Monchique (Algarve). A branch of the Gulf Stream runs down the West Coast and the climate is temperate, but it differs from province to province according to soil, distance from the sea, etc.; while equable on the coasts, it is subject to sudden changes inland. The plateaux of Traz-os-Montes and Beira are cold and harsh, while the Algarve littoral is hot, but even where the temperature is most extreme, the thermometer rarely rises to 3 Fahrenheit or descends to 2 below freezing. Snow only falls in winter in the high mountains and in the north. The rainfall is more abundant in the North than the South, and on the littoral than inland. The humidity produces fogs which render the coasts dangerous to shipping. The most usual winds are northwest, north, and northeast, but in winter southwest winds prevail, accompanied by storms. The nortada and the east wind are dry and disagreeable. Generally speaking, the climate is healthy, the mean temperature being 61 Fahrenheit. In the eighteenth century Lisbon was much recommended by English physicians as a health resort, and Mont’ Estoril, on the sea outside the estuary of the Tagus, is now increasing in favor as a winter residence.
The vegetation is rich, including nearly all the vegetable species of temperate climates and a large number of those found in hot countries. Among trees the pine is the most characteristic, but it does not grow south of the Sado. The pinhal of Leiria planted by King Denis is the largest forest and the mato of Busaco is famous for the size and variety of its trees. Fruit trees abound, especially on the Upper Douro, and in Beira. Olives and oranges are everywhere, the Algarve produces figs, and Trazos-Montes almonds. The vine is universal and forms Portugal’s principal wealth. The chief wines are port, which comes from the Douro region, and the wines of Beira and the Peninsula of Lisbon (Collares and Carcavellos), but the largest vineyard is found just south of the Tagus and is a recent creation. The cereals most grown are wheat, maize (Indian corn), and rye, but Portugal still has to depend on foreign countries for a portion of its bread supply. Wine, oil, fruit, vegetables, cattle, and cork are exported in large quantities, and the chief manufactures are cotton, wool, gold and silver work, lace, and pottery. The fisheries are the main occupation of the coast population, and the sardine industry at Setubal is a flourishing one.
II. HISTORY.—The lifework of Alfonso Henriques first King of Portugal (1128-85) consisted in his assertion, by fighting and diplomacy, of the political independence of the country, and in his enlargement of its boundaries by conquests from the Moors who occupied more than half the present kingdom when he began to rule. Though he had assumed the government in 1128, it was only after a period of fifteen years, during which he suffered a series of reverses, that he was able to obtain recognition of his king-ship from Alfonso VII of Leon, to which kingdom the territory of Portugal had formerly belonged. Alfonso Henriques early resolved to protect himself against the claims of his powerful neighbor and overlord, and in 1142 he offered his kingdom to the Church, declared himself the pope’s vassal, and promised, for himself and his successors, to pay an annual feudal tribute of four ounces of gold. Lucius II ratified the agreement, taking Portugal under his protection and recognizing its independence, and in 1179 another pope, Alexander III, confirmed Alfonso Henriques in his royal dignity. The latter now gave up all idea of extending his dominions, beyond the Minho and the Douro, which rivers formed its boundaries to the north and east, and endeavored to increase them to the south. He carried on a persistent warfare against the infidel by sudden incursions into Moorish territory and by midnight assaults on Moorish towns, and on the whole he was successful. In 1147 he took the almost impregnable city of Santarem. In the same year, after a four months’ siege, the great city of Lisbon, containing “154,000 men, besides women and children”, fell to his arms assisted by a Northern fleet of 164 ships which was on its way to the Second Crusade. The king thereupon moved his capital to the Tagus, appointed Gilbert, an Englishman, its bishop, transported the body of St. Vincent to the cathedral, and perpetuated the saint’s memory in the arms he gave to Lisbon, viz., a ship and two crows, in allusion to the manner in which the relics were trans-ported from Cape St. Vincent and to the birds which were said to have accompanied them during the whole journey.
The reduction of the neighboring strongholds followed, but the king had to wait for the arrival of another crusading fleet before he could take Alcacer do Sol, in 1158. The cities of Evora and Beja fell into his hands soon afterwards, but he could not hold so extensive a territory, and the country south of the Tagus was taken and retaken more than once. At the end of his life an unwarrantable attack on Badajoz placed him in the power of King Ferdinand of Leon, and his last years were full of defeats and humiliations. Nevertheless, when he died the independence of Portugal had been secured, its area doubled, and the name of the little realm was famous throughout Europe for its persistent struggle against the enemies of the Cross. A rough warrior, an astute politician, and a loose liver, Alfonso Henriques was yet a man of strong faith. He corresponded with St. Bernard and put his country under the protection of the Blessed Virgin, decreeing that an annual tribute should be paid to the abbey of Clairvaux. For the Cistercian Order, to whose prayers he attributed the capture of Santarem, he founded the great monastery of Alcobaca, the most famous in Portugal, and endowed it handsomely, so that its lands stretched to the ocean and contained thirteen towns in which the monks exercised authority and levied taxes. They corresponded to such generosity by reducing that great territory to cultivation, and Alcobaca became the mother of numerous daughter monasteries, while its chartulary served in early times as that of the kingdom. The Abbot of Alcobaca had the post of chief almoner and sat in the Royal Council and the Cortes with the honors of a bishop. Furthermore, Alfonso Henriques, in 1132, established for the Augustinian Canons the monastery of Santa Cruz at Coimbra, which rivalled Alcobaca in its wealth and social mission, and for the same order he built S. Vicente in Lisbon, which is now the residence of the Patriarch.
Sancho I (1185-1211) continued the work of reconquest, and a large part of the Algarve fell into his hands, but a fresh invading wave of Moors from Africa ultimately pushed the Christian frontier back to the Tagus. In the intervals of peace allowed him, the king was active in building towns and settling his territory, thus deserving his name of “The Peopier”, and, being a thrifty man, he amassed a large treasure. On his accession, he asked and obtained the papal confirmation of his title, which protected him against his Christian neighbors, and after some delay paid the tribute to the Holy See. This was continued by his immediate successors, but afterwards fell into abeyance. Sancho imitated his father’s liberality to the Church and gave further endowments to bishoprics and abbeys; he likewise favored the military Orders of the Temple of Hospitallers of Aviz, and of S. Thiage which, besides their pious works, supplied the best disciplined soldiers for the war against the Moors and garrisoned the frontier towns and castles. But he was a man of irascible temperament, and his superstition led him to keep a “wise woman” in his company whom he used to consult on his enterprises. His disputes with the clergy and the violent measures he dealt out to them are explained partly by his character and partly by the influence of his chancellor Julian, who had studied Roman Law at Bologna and aimed at increasing the royal authority. Sancho intervened in a question between the Bishop of Oporto and the citizens and ignored the interdict with which Innocent III punished his high-handed proceedings. He also came in conflict with the Bishop of Coimbra, whom he imprisoned and treated with great cruelty.
Sancho persisted in invading the rights of the Church and in particular refused to recognize the ecclesiastical forum and clerical immunity from military service. Though he made some concessions before his death, the conflict he had opened lasted through the next two reigns, and for nearly a century the clergy and the Crown were involved in a struggle over the limits of their respective powers. All the early kings were wont to reward services by extensive grants of lands, and in these lands they gave up the royal jurisdiction. In time, so large a part of the country was held in mortmain, or had passed into the hands of the nobles, that the rest did not produce enough revenue to meet the increasing expenses of government. The monarchs then tried to overcome the difficulty by a revocation of grants, which naturally met with resistance from the nobility and clergy. Denis, though so generally favorable to the Church, employed a more equitable remedy by prohibiting, in 1286, the purchase of real estate by clerics, but this and a stricter law of 1291 were found too severe and had to be modified. The evil was a great and growing one and, had there been no other cause of discord, would have sufficed to set the Crown and landowning classes at issue. Alfonso II (1211-23) took care to obtain the confirmation of his title from the Holy See, and at the Cortes of Coimbra he sanctioned the concessions made by his father to the Church, whose help he hoped to have when he came to annul the large bequests of land which Sancho had made to his children. In this he was disappointed, for the pope intervened as arbiter, and Alfonso’s sisters got their legacies, but they all took the veil, and his brothers never obtained the estates which had been left to them.
This was a victory for the king, who now, on the advice of his chancellor, sent a commission of enquiry through the kingdom to ascertain the titles to land and either confirm or revoke them, as seemed to him just. So far he had kept on good terms with the clergy, but Alfonso’s determination to increase the power of the Crown and fill his treasury affected their immunities, and his action in a dispute between the Bishop of Lisbon and his dean showed that the king’s attitude towards the Church had changed. By 1221 the old differences had appeared again, and in an acute form: Alfonso had seized church property, compelled ecclesiastics to plead before secular justices and to serve in the wars. The learned and holy Archbishop of Braga convoked an assembly of prelates in which he accused the king of his breaches of faith and scandalous life. The latter met this by confiscating the goods of the prelate, who fled to Rome. Honorius dispatched three Spanish bishops to remonstrate with Alfonso, and, as this had no effect, they excommunicated him a year later. The pope then threatened to absolve the king’s subjects from their allegiance and hand over the realm to any prince who cared to take it. A further papal Brief, in 1222, insisting on reparation, together with an attack of leprosy induced Alfonso to enter into negotiations for peace, and these were in progress when he died.
The reign of this excommunicated king witnessed a religious revival which was rendered necessary by the general laxity of both clergy and laity. The Franciscans were introduced by the king’s sister and, although they soon won the affection of the people, they were received with little cordiality on the part of the secular clergy and the other orders, who saw their pecuniary interests damaged. In a Bull of Gregory IX (1233) the pope complains of the hostility shown to the friars by bishops and clergy. At Oporto the bishop ordered them out of the city, sacked their convent, and burned it, but the citizens sided with them, and in the end they were able to return. The order soon spread over the country, convents were built for them, members of the royal family chose their churches as burial places, and the popes bestowed bishoprics on friars and charged them with delicate missions. It was the custom for testators to leave a part of their property to the Church, and Bishop Sueiro of Lisbon promulgated a statute that one-third should be so bequeathed under pain of refusal of the sacraments and canonical burial. The citizens appealed to the pope against this violence, and Honorius condemned it, and charged the superiors of the Dominicans and Franciscans to see that the practice was discontinued. The Dominicans had entered Portugal between 1217 and 1222, and, by virtue of their austere morals, poverty, and humility, they obtained a welcome second only to that given the Franciscans. Sancho II (1223-48) was still only a boy when he succeeded his father. His ministers bound him to make satisfaction for the material losses inflicted on the Church by Alfonso II, and to punish the guilty parties. They also promised that ecclesiastical privileges should be respected, but those responsible for the outrages of the last reign remained in power, and the king had small control over them.
The bishops showed as little desire for peace as the nobles, and vied with them in vexing the monasteries by their monetary exactions. With each succeeding year a state of anarchy increased over the kingdom. The bellicose Bishop of Oporto, Martinho Rodrigues, presented to the pope a long list of accusations against the monarch, in reply to which Cardinal John de Abavila was dispatched to Portugal on a reforming mission, but though he did much good he was unable to end the discords. Bishop Sueiro then put himself at the head of the malcontents and painted in dark colors the condition of the Church. The clergy were blackmailed and deprived of their property, the king and nobles despised ecclesiastical censures, public offices were given to Jews, and so on. Pope Gregory thereupon sent a commission to require the king to correct abuses under threat of penalties, but at first there were some difficulties in the way of reform. The bishops too often abused their immunities, they admitted men to orders who were only anxious to evade military service, and sometimes to avoid answering to the secular courts for their crimes. The pope remedied these evils, but the Government failed to repress those which were charged against it. Yet the Holy See was averse to extreme measures, because it appreciated Sancho’s crusading energy—for, though a bad man and an indolent administrator, he was a bold soldier. An ancient dispute between bishop and citizens as to jurisdiction over the City of Oporto revived again, and bishop and king were soon at issue. Furthermore, the latter roused strong opposition by refusing to allow ecclesiastical bodies or individuals to accept gifts of land, or to purchase it, and, not content with robbing and profaning churches, he slew some priests. He brought matters to a climax when he intervened in a disputed succession to the bishopric of Lisbon and used the most brutal methods to enforce his will and Gregory IX, who had previously threatened, now confirmed a sentence of interdict.
Sancho gave way for the moment, and peace was made, the king turning his arms against the Moors, but in an interval between his successful campaigns he became enamored of a widow, Dona Mecia Lopes de Haro, whom he met. during a visit to the Court of Castile, and under her influence his character deteriorated. The bishops renewed their complaints of the disorders in Portugal, and in 1245, by the Bull “Grandi non immerito”, Innocent IV committed the government to Sancho’s brother Alfonso who was living in France. The latter undertook to remedy the ills of the kingdom and grievances of the Church, and on his arrival the greater part of the country accepted him for regent in accordance with the papal directions. Sancho, finding resistance hope-less, passed into Spain, where he died a year later. In the reign of Alfonso III (1248-79) Portugal attained its farthest European limits by the conquest of the Algarve from the Moors, but Alfonso X of Castile claimed the kingdom, and the Portuguese king was forced to recognize Castilian suzerainty and, though already married, to further purchase his possessions by agreeing to wed Beatrice, his brother monarch’s illegitimate daughter. Fortunately, the first wife of Alfonso III died shortly afterwards, and the king’s bigamous union with Beatrice and their issue were legitimated by Urban IV at the request of the bishops.
So far there had been peace between king and clergy, but the former did not intend to keep the promises on the strength of which he had ascended the throne, and the latter would not abate their claims. In 1258 Alfonso sent a commission of inquiry through the kingdom to determine the royal rights and the fiscal obligations of his subjects, and as a result he revoked, in 1265, many of the crown grants of land. Seven of the bishops took up the challenge, and in 1267 appealed to Clement IV. They alleged that the king, besides seizing their possessions, deprived them of their liberty of action, refused to pay tithes, exacted forced loans, compelled ladies to marry men of no birth, and men of family to wed low women, or those of Moorish or Jewish race. The abuses of civil administration were dealt with in five articles, ecclesiastical grievances occupied forty-three. The charges were true in the main, but the king met them by presenting to the pope a petition signed by all the concelhos in favor of his rule, and, to defeat the bishops by a policy of delay, he took the Cross for a crusade led by St. Louis, but never went. Moreover, the pope and some of the protesting bishops died, while certain abuses were remedied. Relying on his good fortune he became more oppressive than ever, usurping the revenues of four sees, and in 1273 Gregory X ordered the heads of the Franciscan and Dominican Orders in Lisbon to remonstrate with the king. It was long before Alfonso would see them and then he assembled the Cortes at Santarem and had a committee appointed to correct everything done “without reason”. This committee was composed of his friends so that the concession was illusory. On hearing of the king’s duplicity, the pope sent him a strongly-worded Bull, dated September 4, 1275, reminding him of what he owed the Church and requiring him to keep the agreement made in Paris under pain of censure and, in the last resort, of losing the realm.
Again, however, time favored the king, for Gregory and his two successors all died in 1276, and, though the Portuguese John XXI took the matter up, the king would do nothing until the terms of Gregory’s Bull, which he called ordinatio diabolica, were softened. An interdict was therefore pronounced on the realm, and Alfonso’s subjects were absolved from their allegiance, but without effect, for the king had a stronger position than Sancho II. However, he relented when death approached; he promised restitution to the Church and made his heir swear to perform what he himself had promised. His understanding with the municipalities enabled Alfonso III to consolidate the power of the Crown by limiting that of the nobility, both lay and clerical, and even to brave the censures of the Church, which by constant repetition had lost some of their effect. Denis (1279-1325), a cultured man, abstained from foreign wars and devoted himself to developing the resources of the country, his care of agriculture winning him the title of “the Cultivator”. He favored commerce, founded the royal navy, and above all gave peace to the Church. After long negotiations a concordat of forty articles was signed in 1289, and this was followed by two others. The beneplacitum regium was abandoned, the property seized by Alfonso III was restored, and the king bound himself to respect ecclesiastical privileges and immunities, and to observe the old laws and customs of the realm. The free election of bishops was secured, and the extortions practiced by lay patrons of churches and monasteries were prohibited.
The long struggle between Church and Crown terminated; but if tie first gained most of the points contended for, its commanding position ceased. The times were different. With the increasing weakness of the papacy, the clergy became more dependent on the monarch. Moreover, the complete nationalization of the military orders effected by Denis also tended to increase the central power, and it was said of him “that he did all he wished”. On the initiative and at the expense of the Priors of Santa Cruz at Coimbra, S. Vicente at Lisbon, and Santa Maria at Guimaraens and the Abbot of Alcobaca, a university was established at Lisbon and confirmed, in 1290, by papal Bull, with faculties of arts, canon and civil law, and medicine, but not theology, which was studied in the monasteries. The king showed great liberality to the new foundation, which was subsequently, by papal permission, moved to Coimbra. When the Templars were suppressed, John XXII allowed their property to go to the new Order of Christ established in 1319.
If Denis proved a wise and just ruler, some of the credit is due to his wife, St. Isabel. She intervened successfully more than once to end the rebellions of his son. Alfonso IV, (1325-57) continued his father’s policy. He lived on good terms with the other peninsular sovereigns, but when his daughter was ill-treated by her husband, Alfonso XI, he invaded Castile. Once more St. Isabel intervened. Leaving her convent of Poor Clares at Coimbra, she came between the opposing armies at Estremoz and settled the dispute so effectually that when, in 1340, the King of Morocco crossed into Spain to aid the King of Granada against the Christians, Alfonso IV obeyed the papal summons and led a contingent which helped Alfonso XI to win the great battle of the Salado. His later years were clouded by the Black Death and by the rebellion of his son Pedro, who, though married, had become enamored of the beautiful Dona Ines de Castro. To end this infatuation, Alfonso was unfortunately persuaded to consent to her assassination, whereupon the prince rose in arms against his father and devastated the country. Benedict XII exacted the payment of the tribute promised by Alfonso Henriques and took measures against the incontinency of the clergy (a recurring evil in Portuguese history), while Clement VI answered the complaints of the Kings of Portugal and Castile as to the appointment of foreigners to ecclesiastical benefices. The chief characteristic of Pedro I (1357-67), was the pleasure he took in seeking out and punishing lawbreakers, whether laymen or clerics; hence his title, “the Doer of Justice“. Allying himself with Pedro the Cruel of Castile, he took summary vengeance on the murderers of his mistress. He repressed the violence of the nobles and the usury of the Jews, and this with his generosity earned him the respect of the people, savage despot though he was. It is noteworthy that though an especial avenger of adulteries, as well as of witch-craft, he himself lived an immoral life and had several bastards, one of whom became King John I.
The chief ecclesiastical interest of this uneventful reign is centerd in the Cortes of Elvas, in which the clergy submitted a list of thirty-three grievances, some of which received attention. As regards the admission of papal letters, the king promised to see them and order their publication in so far as was right. It was a shuffling reaffirmation of the beneplacitum regium. Ferdinand (1367-83) had his father’s generosity without his strength, and, though he deserves the credit for wise laws encouraging navigation and agriculture, and for the fortification of Lisbon, he fell a victim to animal passion and foolish ambition. His first attempt to win the Throne of Castile against Henry of Trastamara failed, and in 1371 the Peace of Alcoutim was made under the auspices of Gregory XI, Ferdinand agreeing to marry Henry’s daughter. But he could never keep a treaty, and, having fallen in love with Dona Leonor Telles, the wife of one of his nobles, he married her, notwithstanding the angry protest of the citizens of Lisbon. Moreover, he entered into an agreement to assist John of Gaunt, who claimed the crown of Castile. Henry thereupon invaded Portugal, in 1373, and would have captured Lisbon, had not Cardinal Guy de Bologne, the papal legate, forced him to retire and make peace with Ferdinand at Vallada. ‘Leonor now entirely dominated her vacillating and indolent husband, and by obtaining honors and lands for her kinsfolk and friends provided against the time when he should die. Losing all scruples, she engineered the murder of her own sister, and betrayed the king by an intrigue with the Galician noble, Andeiro, whom she persuaded him to create Count of Ourem. A few years later Lisbon was again besieged unsuccessfully by a Castilian army, and in 1381 Ferdinand undertook a war of revenge with the help of an English force under the Duke of Cambridge. He invaded Castile, but when in the presence of the enemy took fright and made peace with King John, one of the terms being that the latter should wed Ferdinand’s heiress Beatrice, which would have led to the union of Portugal and Castile.
At the beginning of the Great Schism it was only the firmness of the bishops that kept Portugal true to Urban VI and prevented the king from offering his obedience to the anti-pope, Clement VII. The resistance of Lisbon to two Castilian sieges had saved Portuguese independence, and by a Bull of Boniface IX its see was raised to metropolitan rank. The people would not submit to a foreign king, and shortly after Ferdinand’s death the citizens of Lisbon rose against Leonor; Andeiro and the archbishop were slain, and John, Grand Master of Aviz, illegitimate son of Pedro I, became defender of the realm. The King of Castile laid siege to Lisbon, but a pestilence compelled him to retire, and in April, 1385, thanks to the eloquence of the great lawyer John das Regras, the Grand Master of Aviz was elected king (1385-1433) at the Cortes of Coimbra. On August 14 he totally defeated the Castilians at Aljubarrota, and this, together with the victories gained by Nuno Alvares Pereira, “the Holy Constable”, secured Portuguese independence. The king erected on the field of battle the great monastery of Batalha and there he and his sons were buried. On May 9, 1388, he made the Treaty of Windsor with England and, though a cleric, sealed the alliance by wedding Philippa, daughter of John of Gaunt. In 1391 Boniface IX legitimated the marriage.
Portugal now turned her face to the ocean and prepared to become a great maritime power. The over-sea conquest began with the capture of Ceuta, in 1415, and under the auspices of Prince Henry the Navigator the voyages were organized which ultimately led to the discovery of the road to India round the Cape of Good Hope. The pope encouraged these efforts, which had for their object the spread of Christianity as well as of commerce, and, by a Bull of April 4, 1418, confirmed to the king all the lands he should take from the Moors. In the previous year Ceuta had been created a diocese, and it was the first of the many sees erected in non-Christian countries where the Portuguese carried their faith and flag. John made two concordats with the Church, the first at the Cortes of Elvas, the second, in 1427, at the Cortes of Santarem, but he did not abandon the beneplacitum regium. He had been compelled to make large grants of lands to the nobles as the price of their support in the War of Independence. One of the first acts of his son Edward (in Portuguese Duarte—1433-38) was to promulgate the “Lei Mental” which enacted that these properties should only descend in the direct male line of the grantee, on the failure of which they reverted to the Crown. The ill result of the expedition against Tangier, which was undertaken against the advice of Eugenius IV and ended in the captivity of the Infanta Ferdinand, hastened the end of the crowned philosopher, and Alfonso V (1438-81) succeeded to the throne in childhood. The people would not accept his mother, Queen Leonor, as regent, and that office was conferred on the Infanta Pedro, Edward’s brother. The queen and her party never forgave this act; they stirred up Alfonso against his uncle, who was defeated and slain at the battle of Alfarroeira. The authors of this tragedy were excommunicated by the pope, and relations between Portugal and Rome ceased, but were reestablished in 1451, and from 1452 onwards became very close.
Alfonso, a typical medieval knight, full of the crusading spirit, was bent on fighting the Moors, and he received every encouragement. Nicholas V, by a Bull of January 8, 1454, conceded to him all conquests in Africa from Cape Non to Guinea, with power to build churches the patronage of which should be his, and prohibited any vessels from sailing to those parts without leave from the King of Portugal. By another Bull of the same date the pope extended Portuguese dominion over all the seas from Africa to India. A subsequent Bull granted to the Order of Christ authority in spirituals over the peoples subdued by the Portuguese as far as India, and provided that no one but the King of Portugal should be entitled to send expeditions of discovery to those parts. Finally, in 1481, Sixtus IV confirmed to the kings of Portugal all islands and territories discovered now or in the future from Cape Non to India. The voyages continued during Alfonso’s reign, and the equator was passed in 1471. But the king thought more of land conquests in North Africa, where he made three successful expeditions, and continued to covet the throne of the neighboring country until he was defeated, in 1476, at the battle of Toro. His reign was rendered notable by the publication, in 1446, of the Alfonsine Code.
John II (1481-95) showed great energy in the work of discovery, which had been somewhat neglected since the death of Prince Henry, and under his auspices Bartholomew Diaz passed the Cape of Good Hope in 1486, and in 1498 Vasco da Gama reached India. A firm believer in absolute government and a man of inflexible will, John broke the power of the nobility, which had become enormous through the unwise liberality of his father, following on the donations of John I. He deprived them of their right to administer justice on their estates, and when they resisted, led by the Duke of Braganza, the king had him arrested and beheaded, and completed his work by himself stabbing the Duke of Viseu and ordering the execution of the Bishop of Evora and others. A great confiscation of estates followed and enriched the Crown, which now became the one power of the realm. John maintained good relations with Castile and, in 1494, made the Treaty of Tordesillas, confirmed by the Bull of Alexander VI, by which the limits of the possessions of Spain and Portugal in the regions discovered by their seamen were fixed by an imaginary line drawn at 360 leagues west of Cape Verde, the Spaniards acquiring the right to all lands lying to the west and the Portuguese getting those to the east. Under this division of the world most of the coastline of Brazil found in 1500 fell to Portugal, and the rest of America and the West Indies to Spain.
Provincial and diocesan synods had become less frequent with each succeeding century (in the fifteenth century not one provincial synod was held) with the result that ecclesiastical discipline declined. The bishops of the best-endowed sees were almost invariably chosen from noble families and some of them lived away from their diocese. This was the case with those of Ceuta and Tangier. By a Brief of October 13, 1501, issued at the instance of King Emanuel, the bishops were ordered to fulfil their duty of visitation, which they seem to have generally neglected. From the beginning, the monastic orders and the chapters had attracted the best talents, and the parochial clergy were usually as ignorant as they were poor. Innocent VIII had to issue a Bull in 1485, providing that no one unable to construe Latin well should be ordained. The prevailing laxity had affected the monasteries, but the orders themselves responded to the desires of the king and the Holy See. A reform of the Dominican monasteries began at Bemfica and spread to the other houses. The zeal of the Franciscans was equally marked, no less than twenty-three convents of Observants were founded within a century, and these, despite the opposition of the Conventuals, restored the order to its pristine purity.
King Emanuel (1495-1521) reaped the harvest sown by his predecessors, and every year of his reign witnessed some new discovery, some great deed. The genius of Albuquerque gave him the maritime keys of Asia, and the monopoly of the Eastern trade made him the richest king in Christendom. In 1514 the monarch sent his splendid embassy to Rome to offer the tribute of India at the feet of Leo X, to urge the pope to proceed with the reform of the Church, and to secure a league of Christian princes against the Turks. Though these objects failed, the king obtained many personal favors, including the amplification of the Padroado, or right of patronage over churches in non-Christian countries. The pope received the submission of the Abyssinian Church through Emanuel and, recognizing the king as the chief protector and propagator of the Faith, twice sent him the Golden Rose. Emanuel was especially anxious to add Castile to his world-wide dominions, and he made three marriages to that end, but all in vain. It was a condition of his first marriage (to the eldest daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella) that he should expel the Jews and unconverted Moors. The Jews had enjoyed the protection of previous kings and had supplied them with trusted servants, but, as both the clergy and people hated them for their usury, and envied their talents and wealth, Emanuel sacrificed them, against the protests of some of his best councillors. They were given the choice of conversion or exile, and naturally, from worldly motives, the greater part accepted the former alternative and became known as “new Christians”, intermarrying with old Christians. Many of these converts went back to Judaism and became the victims of bitter and continual persecution, when the Inquisition was established.
King Emanuel and his son, John III, were great builders; the former erected the Hieronymite church and monastery at Belem, to commemorate Vasco da Gama‘s discovery, and the latter made great additions to the superb convent of Christ at Thomar. Though the Golden Abe apparently continued, Portugal began to decline in the reign of John III (1521-57). Emigration drained the best blood of the country; the East corrupted, while it enriched, its conquerors; the cultivation of the soil was left to slaves; commerce was blighted by the Inquisition, which drove capital abroad. The Government could not make both ends meet, and the wealth of the Hebrews invited their spoliation. The king, a serious, conscientious man, but of small education, satisfied the complaints of the people against that race by petitioning the Holy See in 1531 to establish the Inquisition. After a twenty years’ struggle at Rome with the Hebrews, marked by disgraceful bribery on both sides, John forced the pope’s consent in 1547, and the bigoted Infanta Henry, afterwards king, became chief inquisitor. The tribunal was popular and practically destroyed Judaism, but its methods divided the nation into spies and victims, encouraged black-mail and false denunciations, and contributed to undermine the national character. It put a new weapon into the hands of the monarch, who now had no check on his rule, for the Cortes had lost their power by the end of the preceding century. In 1540 the first Jesuits came, and the king became a warm patron of their early missionary labors in the East. In addition to the ministry of the confessional and the pulpit, the Society devoted itself to teaching and opened colleges which were crowded by youths of the better classes. The university, which since its foundation had moved to and fro between Lisbon and Coimbra, was fixed at the latter place in 1537, and distinguished professors, Portuguese and foreign, raised its intellectual level. Experience proved however that their learning was superior to their orthodoxy and morals, and they were replaced by the Jesuits, who by degrees obtained that control of higher education which they held for two centuries.
John deserves credit for his policy of peace abroad and for the colonization of Brazil, in which he had the assistance of the Jesuits, who civilized the natives and protected them from the European settlers. A number of new colonial dioceses were founded in this reign, and Portuguese theologians, among them Ven. Bartholomew of the Martyrs, took a prominent part in the Council of Trent. On John’s death, his widow became regent for her grandson Sebastian (1557-78), who was a minor. The latter grew up an exalted mystic and knight errant of the Cross, without interest in the work of government. Though pressed by St. Pius V, he refused to marry and obstinately insisted on attempting to conquer North Africa without sufficient men or money. His rout and death at the battle of Alcacer decided the fate of Portugal, for Cardinal Henry (1578-80) lived less than two years, and in 1580 Philip II of Spain claimed the throne as next heir. Partly by force and partly by bribery, he secured election as Philip I of Portugal (1580-98) at the Cortes of Thomar in 1581, and for sixty years the Crowns of Portugal and Spain were united. If Philip I and II (1598-1621) ruled well, the period was none the less a disastrous one from a religious, as from a political point of view, and Portugal suffered heavily in the duel between the Protestant Powers and Spain. Her Eastern possessions fell into the hands of the English and Dutch, and the latter seized a large part of the coastline of Brazil. The monetary exactions of Philip III (1621-40) and the determination of his minister, Olivares, to destroy the liberties of Portugal, aroused in all classes a fierce hostility to foreign rule. The lower clergy and religious orders embraced the popular cause. The tolerance shown to the Jews, who were permitted to return, and the expulsion of the papal nuncio, Castracani, outraged their feelings, and the increasing burden of taxation pressed them hard, so that they encouraged their flocks to look for a deliverer in the Duke of Braganza and greatly contributed to the issue.
The revolution of 1640 raised John IV (1540-56) to the throne, and liberated Portugal and her remaining possessions from a foreign yoke, but it led to an exhausting war with Spain, which lasted twenty-eight years. Moreover, owing to Spanish pressure, the popes refused to recognize the new monarch; see after see fell vacant and remained so, and ecclesiastical discipline became relaxed. These evils continued during the reign of Alfonso VI (1656-83), an imbecile youth of criminal tastes, who was deposed in 1667, his brother Pedro becoming regent and, on Alfonso’s death, ascending the throne. The reign of Pedro (1683-1706) is marked by the discovery of gold in Brazil, by the signature of the Methuen Treaty with England, and by the participation of Portugal in the War of the Spanish Succession, when an Anglo-Portuguese army entered Madrid. Though the Portuguese had lost most of their possessions in the East, their missionaries continued to spread the Faith in pagan countries and actually defended remote possessions like Timor against the Dutch. In 1690 the Bishoprics of Pekin and Nankin were established by Alexander VIII, and, after a conflict with the Propaganda, the claim of Portugal to nominate prelates for all sees in the East was allowed.
In 1691 the Cortes met for the last time previous to the Revolution of 1820. The leading ecclesiastical figure of the age was Father Antonio Vieira, preacher, protector of the Indians of Brazil, and confidential agent of John IV. The relations between the Jesuits and the Inquisition had never been cordial, and the tribunal, aware of Vieira’s sympathy for the converted Jews, and anxious to humble the Society, condemned certain propositions taken from his writings, sentenced him to seclusion in a college, and deprived him of the right to preach. Thereupon Vieira went to Rome and, presented a memorial to the pope, who ordered an inquiry into the methods of the Inquisition and suspended it until reforms should be introduced. It submitted after a struggle, and, when Innocent XI revoked the suspension in 1681, the tribunal had to adopt a milder procedure. The gold and diamonds of Brazil enabled John V (1706-50) to imitate Louis XIV in magnificence. To licentious habits he united a taste for ecclesiastical pomp. He displayed his piety by building an enormous pile, church, monastery, and palace in one, at Mafra, by providing the large sums required in connection with the canonization of various saints, and by obtaining from the pope the elevation of the Archbishopric of Lisbon to the dignity of a patriarchate, together with the title, for himself and his successors, of “Most Faithful Majesty”. Except in the case of the Lisbon aqueduct, the country reaped small benefit from the vast sums expended by the artistic, pleasure-loving monarch; and if religion was outwardly honored, the bad example set by John helped to lower the already impaired national standard of morals. The nobility had by this time ceased to visit their estates and degenerated into a race of mere courtiers. The interests of the common people were neglected by the Government, almost their only friends being the religious orders. At the pope’s bidding, John sent a fleet against the Turks which helped to win the battle of Matapan in 1717.
The reign of Joseph (1750-77) is made famous by the administration of the Marquess of Pombal, the real ruler of Portugal for over twenty years. The energy he displayed at the time of the great earthquake of 1755 confirmed his hold over the king, and with royal support he was able to use the alleged “Tavora Conspiracy” to humble the nobility and to continue the campaign he was directing against the Jesuits, whom he was determined to master. His accusations against them of seditious conduct in the missions and of illicit trading were merely pretexts. He had already dismissed them from Court, delated them to Rome and secured the appointment of a friend of his, Cardinal Saldanha, as their reformer, and when an attempt was made on the king’s life he attributed it to Jesuit machinations, confiscated the property of the company in the Portuguese dominions and expelled the Portuguese Jesuits, retaining the foreigners in prison. The pope had refused to incriminate the whole company for the faults of individuals, and Pombal’s reply was to dismiss the nuncio and break off relations with Rome. Henceforth the real head of the Church in Portugal was the Minister. He heaped ignominy on the Jesuits by securing the burning of Father Malagrida by the Inquisition, and his work was completed when, under pressure from the Catholic Powers, Clement XIV suppressed the Society in 1773. Pombal’s ruin of the Foreign Missions was perhaps his greatest crime and was by no means compensated for by his abolition of slavery and of the distinction between old and new Christians. He undoubtedly made great and necessary reforms in internal administration and freed Portugal for the time from its subservience to England, but his commercial policy was a failure, and the harm he did far outweighed the good. Above all he forged those fetters for the Church which still paralyse her action.
The death of Joseph brought about the fall of the minister, but the new sovereigns Pedro and Maria (1777-1816), while opening the prisons which Pombal had filled with his opponents, left much of his work untouched. The king died early, the queen lost her reason, and their son John, a sympathetic but weak man, was named regent. French ideas—those of the Encyclopedists and of the Revolution—were kept out of the country as long as possible, but the ambition of Napoleon gave little hope of security to a small kingdom which was regarded as the dependent of England. The Treaty of Fontainebleau divided the country between France and Spain; the famous proclamation was issued, stating that the House of Braganza had ceased to reign, and Junot with a French army occupied Lisbon in 1807. The royal family fled to Brazil, and Portugal was governed from there until 1820. Queen Maria died at the close of the Peninsular War, which led to the overthrow of the Napoleonic power, and John VI (1816-26) came to the throne. The Revolution of 1820 forced him to return home, and he had to accept a constitution of a most radical character, for which the country was entirely unfitted. One calamity succeeded another. The opening of the ports of Brazil to foreign ships ruined Portuguese commerce, the separation of the colony diminished the prestige of the mother country, which was reduced to a miserable plight by the long war, and internal feuds were added to external troubles. On the death of John, his son Pedro IV gave a new constitution, called “the Charter”, and then resigned the throne in favor of his infant daughter Maria II, naming his brother Miguel regent. The Conservatives, or Absolutist Party, however, who hated the Charter as the work of Liberals and Freemasons, desired him as king, and he summoned a Cortes of the old type which placed him on the throne in 1828. The Radicals and Chartists at once organized resistance to what they called the usurpation and, after a long civil war, were successful. By the Convention of Evora Monte, Miguel had to abandon his claims and leave the country. The victorious Liberals initiated an era of persecution and robbery of the Church, the effects of which are still felt. The religious orders were the first to go. The orders of men were suppressed, and their property confiscated, nominally to enrich the treasury, but private individuals reaped the benefit. The orders of women were allowed to die out, further professions being prohibited. The people, deprived of the monks and friars, who were their teachers, preachers and confessors, gradually lost their knowledge of religious truths, because the secular clergy were unprepared to take the place of the orders; besides which, the bishops and clergy were bound hand and foot to the State.
The last half-century of the Portuguese Monarchy, embracing the reigns of Pedro V (1853-61), Louis I (1861-89), and Charles I (1889-1908), was one of internal peace and increasing material prosperity. But only in the last few years have Portuguese Catholics begun to emerge from a state of lethargy. Modern Portuguese statesmen, usually Catholic only in name, have interested themselves in ecclesiastical affairs to preserve old privileges, such as the Padroado in the East, but hardly ever to assist the Church in the performance of her Divine mission. The Concordat of 1886 regulated many of the questions in dispute with the State and Hintze Ribeiro’s decree of 1896 authorized the existence of religious orders under certain conditions. The prospect of better conditions for the Church vanished, however, with the coming of the Revolution in 1910, which drove the Braganza dynasty from the throne, and delivered Portugal into the hands of the Radicals, whose hostility to the Catholic religion was made evident by the adverse course of the Provisional Government set up by the Revolutionists. On February 1, 1908, King Charles and the Crown Prince were assassinated in the streets of Lisbon. The murder was perpetrated by a man named Buica and several associates, and was applauded by the Republican press. The succession devolved on the second son, who ascended the throne as Emanuel II. His reign was, however, brief. On October 3, 1910, a revolution, which had been arranged for October 10, broke out prematurely, and Emanuel fled from the capital to Gibraltar, where he shortly afterwards embarked for England. A provisional government, republican in form, was proclaimed, with Theophilus Braga, a native of the Azores, as President. He immediately set to work to carry out the radical measures of the republican program, the first of which was the summary and violent expulsion of the religious congregations, the seizure of their property by the State, the abolition of the Senate and all hereditary privileges and titles. The separation of Church and State was also arbitrarily decreed by the provisional government.
On April 20, 1911, a second decree, in 196 articles, was promulgated, regulating in detail the previously sweeping enactments. Article 38 of this decree prohibits any minister of religion, under the penalties of article 137 of the Criminal Code and the loss of the material benefits (pensions) of the State, from criticizing “in the exercise of his ministry and on the occasion of any act of worship, in sermons or in public writings, the public authority or any of its acts, or the form of the government or the laws of the Republic, or denying or calling into question the rights of the State embodied in this decree or in other legislation relative to the Churches”. Chapter IV devotes twenty-seven articles to the ownership and administration of church buildings and property. Churches, chapels, lands, and chattels, hitherto applied to the public worship of the Catholic religion are declared property of the State, unless bona fide ownership by some private individual or corporation can be proved. Chapter v, in twenty-four articles, provides for boards of laymen (after the manner of the French Law of Associations) to take charge of and administer the temporalities needed for Catholic worship. This arrangement is, however, revocable at the pleasure of the grantor (the State). Buildings intended for religious purposes, but not yet utilized, whether in course of construction or completed; buildings which for a year have not been used for religious purposes and such as by December 31, 1912, shall have no board of laymen to administer them, shall be taken by the State for some social purpose. Only Portuguese citizens who have made their theological studies in Portugal may officiate. Chapter VI deals with the question of pensions for the ministers of the Catholic religion, and permits them to marry. Article 175, chapter vii, stipulates that “ministers of religion enjoy no privileges and are authorized to correspond officially by mail with the public authorities only, and not with one another”.
A Constituent Assembly, elected early in the summer of 1911, on June 19 of that year formally decreed the abolition of the Portuguese monarchy.
III. ACTUAL CONDITIONS.—A. Ecclesiastical Organization.—By the Constitutional Charter Catholicism was, prior to the Republic, the religion of the State, but all other religions were tolerated, so long as they were not practiced in a building having the exterior form of a church. Continental Portugal is divided ecclesiastically into three metropolitan provinces, containing twelve dioceses (nine suffragan). The Patriarchate of Lisbon has for suffragan sees Guarda and Portalegre; the Archbishopric of Braga has those of Braganca, Lamego, Coimbra, Oporto, and Vizeu; the Archbishopric of Evora, those of Beja and Faro. The Patriarch of Lisbon is considered to be entitled to a cardinal’s hat, and the archbishop of Braga bears the title of “Primate of the Spains”, an honor which, however, is disputed by Toledo. The Azores and Madeira each contain an episcopal see and the colonial sees include those of Cape Verde, Angola, Goa (a patriarchate), Damao, Cochin, Mylapur, Macao, Mozambique, and St. Thomas (S. Thome).
According to the Concordat of 1886, bishops were nominated by the Government, appointed by the pope, and paid by the State. Parish priests were appointed by the minister of justice, after information as to their fitness supplied by the bishops, so that they were State functionaries, and often owed their positions to political influence. To qualify for any ecclesiastical post, they had to obtain a government license before taking orders. In the Islands the parish priests were paid by the State, but on the Continent their income was derived partly from a fund called Congrua, which consisted of contributions levied on the parishioners, and partly from stole fees. There were twelve seminaries for the education of the clergy on the Continent, two in the Islands, and four in other colonies. There is also a Portuguese College in Rome and one for Foreign Missionaries in Portugal. The seminaries were supported partly by their own funds and partly by the Junta Geral da Bulla da Cruzada, an ancient institution which derived its income from offerings made for dispensations, etc. The clergy were exempt from military and jury service, and were ineligible for any administrative position, except the Parish Council (Junta da Parochia), of which the parish priest is the president. These councils administered the property of the parish church and taxed the parishioners for the construction and repair of church and presbytery, the expenses of worship, church ornaments and vestments, etc. The confrarias and irmandades, which numbered about 9000, were independent bodies, ruled by their own statutes.
B. Religious Orders.—How the Jesuits were expelled by Pombal, and how, in 1834, the religious orders of men were suppressed and their property seized by the State, has been told above. At the same time the orders of women were prohibited from taking novices and were allowed to die out, after which their convents also passed to the State, but by the Decree of April 18, 1901, religious congregations were permitted to exist when they were dedicated exclusively to instruction or good works, or to spreading Christianity and civilization in the colonies. Long before this decree, the Jesuits had returned and opened colleges for the education of youth, and a number of orders and religious institutes were eventually established in Portugal. These included Missionaries of the Holy Ghost, Benedictines, Franciscans, Irish Dominicans, Little Sisters of the Poor, Sisters of the Third Order of St. Dominic, Franciscan Sisters, Servite Sisters, Dorotheans, Sisters of the Missions, Salesians, Sisters of St. John of God, Sisters of St. Joseph of Cluny, Marist Sisters, Sisters of St. Vincent de Paul, and Portuguese Sisters of Charity (Trinas).
C. Statistics of Population.—The population of Portugal, according to the census of 1900, was 5,423,132, the greater portion (68 per cent) being rural. The North is more thickly populated than the South, the maximum of density being reached between the rivers Douro and Ave. Emigration is increasing. In 1907, 45,000 individuals left their homes, 24,000 of these for Brazil and 6000 for North America.
D. Education.—The first modern law providing for the general instruction of the people was that of the Marquess of Pombal, dated November 6, 1772. But this law remained a dead letter, and, though the Constitutional Charter guaranteed free primary instruction to all citizens, and a multitude of statutes dealing with the question have been subsequently passed, at least 70 per cent of the population can neither read nor write. The direction of primary education was formerly exercised by the University of Coimbra, but it now belongs to the Home Office, the cost being borne partly by the Concelhos, partly by the State. At the end of 1904 there were 4968 primary schools on the Continent and the adjacent islands, 2953 being for boys, 1549 for girls and 466 mixed, but some of these only exist on paper, and some hundreds of parishes have no school. Moreover, the conditions of a large proportion of the schools are not good, while the teachers are ill-prepared and ill-paid. The backward condition of Portugal is largely attributable to its lack of instruction, and in view of the want of interest shown by the Government in non-political questions, private societies are endeavoring to apply the remedy. Among these are the Moveable Schools which teach according to the methods of the poet Joao de Deus, the recently formed National League of Instruction and other bodies, most of which are Freethinking in character. Before the Revolution the Republicans had identified themselves with a movement for lay-teaching, and their various centers had free schools attached, for the instruction of the children of their members.
Secondary instruction is given in the lyceos, which are found in all the principal towns, and in technical schools; but the boys of the better classes, prior to the Republic, were largely confided to the care of the Jesuits, and the girls to one of the many educational convents which then existed. There are also many private schools, some conducted by foreigners, where an ordinary business education can be had. The religious instruction of the people was far from satisfactory, and since the advent of the Republic is less so. Catechism used to be included in the curriculum of the government primary schools, but under the Republican regime is altogether excluded. There is no religious teaching in the lyceos, which are day schools, without proper discipline or any attempt at the formation of character. Higher education is given in the University of Coimbra (with about 1450 students) and in various establishments of a special character, such as the Curso Superior das Letras, the Medical, Army, Navy, and Polytechnic Schools, in Lisbon and Oporto. The university has a theological faculty, with but very few students, owing to its unorthodox character. Ignorance of religion and of church history, and the reading of bad literature go far to explain the anti-clerical feeling which prevails among the people generally in the towns, and especially in the capital. The Press is intellectually of little account, and its moral tone is low, especially in the case of the Republican organs, some of the most circulated of which are not fit for perusal by women. The Catholic organs, “Portugal” of Lisbon and “Palavra” of Oporto, before they were suppressed by the Republic, enjoyed an increasing circulation, but an avowedly religious paper is suspected by the great majority of educated Catholics, who fear to be dubbed reactionary. It is the commonest ambition to be considered Liberal, though the word is a misnomer in Portugal, where it stands for many ideas and aspirations essentially illiberal. The Republicans, though many of them profess Catholicism, have always been an anti-clerical party. They claim to defend the native secular clergy against religious orders who are mostly composed of foreigners, and especially against the Jesuits. They generally favor civil marriage, a divorce law, the abolition of religious processions in the streets etc. The Socialists go further and are frankly godless.
E. Laws Affecting Religion.—Previous to the Revolution of 1910, a testator might only dispose freely of a third part of his property by will; this is called the terga. The remaining two-thirds go to form the legitima of his heirs in the ascending and descending line. A testator may not bequeath more than a third of his tercet to be spent in prayers and masses for his soul, and ecclesiastical corporations may not benefit under his will to an amount exceeding the third of his tercet. The testamentary dispositions of a sick person in favor of his confessor, except such as are merely remunerative, are void if he dies of the illness during which he has made them. Professed religious women cannot make wills until they become secularized or their communities are suppressed, nor can they acquire anything by will, except by way of aliment, or money legacy, or other moveables. The Civil Code makes no mention of men bound by religious vows, because the law does not know them.
There was, under the Monarchy, no divorce law in Portugal, but a marriage could be declared null for reasons allowed by the Church. The canonical impediments were recognized by the Code. Civil marriage and interment were permitted, but made small headway, and the parish registers continued to be almost universally used, though there was a civil register of births, marriages, and deaths. The courts could decree separation of persons and goods (I) in case of adultery by the wife, (2) in case of adultery and desertion by the husband, or public scandal; (3) when one of the parties was condemned to a life penalty, or (4) when one of the parties had been guilty of outrageous cruelty to the other. Children born out of wedlock were legitimated by the subsequent marriage of their parents, when the latter formally recognized them, or when the children themselves obtained a judicial sentence in their favor.
Cemeteries were provided and controlled by the municipalities in the chief places of each district. Outside of these, they were established at the expense of the parishioners by the parish council, to which they belonged. The death penalty has long been abolished in Portugal, which may account in part for the large number of murders. Criminals sentenced to long terms of imprisonment were sent to the Penitenciaria in Lisbon and there are casas de correcgito, or reformatories, for small boys and girls. Good Shepherd homes for fallen women existed at Lisbon and Oporto, but were suppressed by the Provisional Government at the time of the Revolution. Charitable institutions abounded, and Portugal had, under the Monarchy, some 370 Misericordias and hospitals. In the various districts of Lisbon, the cozinhas economicas, an institution founded and largely supported by the late Duchess of Palmella, provided cheap meals for the poor, and Queen Amelia’s crusade against tuberculosis led to the establishment of free consulting hospitals and sanatoria in different parts of the country.
As a result of the encyclicals of Leo XIII on Christian democracy, the movement for the establishment of Catholic circles for workingmen was inaugurated in Portugal, and these mutual-aid societies existed in the principal centers of population, furnished education to the workmen and their children, and kept them together by conferences, concerts, and excursions. The associations of Catholic youth in Lisbon and Oporto also deserve mention. But the sweeping measures inaugurated by the Republican Government effected a complete rupture of the former relations between Church and State, and the status of the various Catholic organizations, aside from the religious congregations (which were immediately dissolved), has become very uncertain.
PORTUGUESE LITERATURE.—The Portuguese language was developed gradually from the lingua rustica spoken in the countries which formed part of the Roman Empire and, both in morphology and syntax, it represents an organic transformation of Latin without the direct intervention of any foreign tongue. The sounds, grammatical forms, and syntactical types, with a few exceptions, are derived from Latin, but the vocabulary has absorbed a number of Germanic and Arabic words, and a few have Celtic or Iberian origin. Before the close of the middle ages the language threatened to become almost as abbreviated as French, but learned writers, in their passion for antiquity, reapproximated the vocabulary to Latin. The Renaissance commenced a separation between literary men and the people, between the written and spoken tongue, which with some exceptions lasted until the beginning of the nineteenth century. Then the Romanticists went back to tradition and drew on the poetry and every day speech of the people, and, thanks to the writings of such men as Almeida-Garrett and Camillo Castello Branco, the literary language became national once again.
EARLY VERSE.—An indigenous popular poetry existed at the beginning of Portuguese history, but the first literary activity came from Provence. It was quickened by the accession of King Alfonso III, who had been educated in France, and the productions of his time are preserved in the “Cancioneiro de Ajuda”, the oldest collection of peninsular verse. But the most brilliant period of Court poetry, represented in the “Cancioneiro da Vaticana”, coincided with the reign of King Denis, a cultivated man, who welcomed singers from all parts and himself wrote a large number of erotic songs, charming ballads, and pastorals. This thirteenth century Court poetry, which deals mainly with love and satire, is usually copied from Provencal models and conventional, but, where it has a popular form and origin, it gains in sincerity what it loses in culture. By the middle of the fourteenth century troubadour verse was practically dead, but the names of some few bards have survived, among them Vasco Peres de Camoens, ancestor of the great epic poet, and Macias “the enamored”. Meanwhile the people were elaborating a ballad poetry of their own, the body of which is known as the Romanceiro. It consists of lyrico-narrative poems treating of war, chivalry, adventure, religious legends, and the sea, many of which have great beauty and contain traces of the varied civilizations which have existed in the peninsula. When the Court poets had exhausted the artifices of Provencal lyricism, they imitated the poetry of the people, giving it a certain vogue which lasted until the Classical Renaissance. It was then thrust into the background, and though cultivated by a few, it remained unknown to men of letters until the nineteenth century, when Almeida-Garrett began his literary revival and collected folk poems from the mouths of the peasantry.
EARLY PROSE.—Prose developed later than verse and first appeared in the fourteenth century in the shape of short chronicles, lives of saints, and genealogical treatises called “Livros de Linhagens”. Portugal did not elaborate her own chansones de gestes, but gave prose form to foreign medieval poems of romantic adventure; for example, the “History of the Holy Grail” and “Amadis of Gaul”. The first three books of the latter probably received their present shape from Joao Lobeira, a troubadour of the end of the thirteenth century, though this original has been lost and only the Spanish version remains. The “Book of Aesop” also belongs to this period. Though the cultivated taste of the Renaissance affected to despise the medieval stories, it adopted them with alterations as a homage to classical antiquity. Hence came the cycle of the “Palmerins” and the “Chronica do Emperador Clarimundo” of Joao de Barros. The medieval romance of chivalry gave place to the pastoral novel, the first example of which is the “Saudades” of Bernardim Ribeiro, followed by the “Diana” of Jorge de Montemor, which had a numerous progeny. Later in the sixteenth century Goncalo Fernandes Trancoso, a fascinating storyteller, produced his “Historias de Proveito e Exemplo”.
FIFTEENTH CENTURY.—A. Prose.—A new epoch in literature dates from the Revolution of 1383-5. King John wrote a book of the chase, his sons, King Duarte and D. Pedro, composed moral treatises, and an anonymous scribe told with charming naïveté the story of the heroic Nuno Alvares Pereira in the “Chronica do Condestavel”. The line of chroniclers which is one of the boasts of Portuguese literature began with Fernao Lopes, who compiled the chronicles of the reigns of Kings Pedro, Fernando, and John I. He combined a passion for accurate statement with an especial talent for descriptive writing and portraiture, and with him a new epoch dawns. Azurara, who succeeded him in the post of official chronicler, and wrote the “Chronicle of Guinea” and chronicles of the African wars, is an equally reliable historian, whose style is marred by pedantry and moralizing. His successor, Ruy de Pina, avoids these defects and, though not an artist like Lopes, gives a useful record of the reigns of Kings Duarte, Alfonso V, and John II. His history of the latter monarch was appropriated by the poet Garcia da Resende, who adorned it, adding many anecdotes he had learned during his intimacy with John, and issued it under his own name.
B. Poetry.—The introduction of Italian poetry, especially that of Petrarch, into the peninsula led to a revival of Spanish verse which, owing to the superiority of its cultivators, dominated Portugal throughout the fifteenth century. Constable Dom Pedro, friend of Marquis de Santillana, wrote almost entirely in Castilian and is the first representative of the Spanish influence which imported from Italy the love of allegory and reverence for classical antiquity. The court poetry of some three hundred knights and gentlemen of the time of Alfonso V and John II is contained in the “Cancioneiro Geral”, compiled by Resende and inspired by Juan de Mena, Jorge Manrique, and other Spaniards. The subjects of these mostly artificial verses are love and satire. Among the few that reveal special talent and genuine poetical feeling are Resende’s lines on the death of D. Ignez de Castro, the “Fingimento de Amores” of Diogo Brandao, and the “Coplas” of D. Pedro. Three names appear in the “Cancioneiro” which were destined to create a literary revolution, those of Bernardin Ribeiro, Gil Vicente, and SA, de Miranda.
IV. EARLY SIXTEENTH CENTURY.—A. Pastoral Poetry.—Portuguese pastoral poetry is more natural and sincere than that of other nations because Ribeiro, the founder of the bucolic school, sought inspiration in the national serranilhas, but his eclogues, despite their feeling and rhythmic harmony, are surpassed by the “Crisfal” of Christovao Falcao. These and the eclogues and sententious “Cartas” of Sa, de Miranda are written in versos de arte mayor, and the popular medida velha (as the national metre was afterwards called to distinguish it from the Italian endecasyllable), continued to be used by Camoens in his so-called minor works, by Bandarra for his prophecies, and by Gil Vicente.
B. Drama.—Though Gil Vicente did not originate dramatic representations, he is the father of the Portuguese stage. Of his forty-four pieces, fourteen are in Portuguese, eleven in Castilian, the remainder bilingual, and they consist of autos, or devotional works, tragicomedies, and farces. Beginning in 1502 with religious pieces, conspicuous among them being “Auto da Alma” and the famous trilogy of the “Barcas”, he soon introduces the comic and satirical element by way of relief and for moral ends, and, before the close of his career in 1536, has arrived at pure comedy, as in “Ignez Pereira” and the “Floresta de Enganos”, and developed the study of character. The plots are simple, the dialogue spirited, the lyrics often of finished beauty, and while Gil Vicente appeared too early to be a great dramatist, his plays mirror to perfection the types, customs, language, and daily life of all classes. The playwrights who followed him had neither superior talents nor court patronage and, attacked by the classical school for their lack of culture and by the Inquisition for their grossness, they were reduced to entertaining the lower class at country fairs and festivals.
V. THE RENAISSANCE produced a pleiad of distinguished poets, historians, critics, antiquaries, theologians, and moralists which made the sixteenth century a golden age.
Lyric and epic poetry.—SA, de Miranda introduced Italian forms of verse and raised the tone of poetry. He was followed by Antonio Ferreira, a superior stylist, by Diogo Bernardes, and Andrade Caminha, but the Quinhentistas tended to lose spontaneity in their imitation of classical models, though the verse of Frei Agostinho da Cruz is an exception. The genius of Camoes (q.v.) led him to fuse the best elements of the Italian and popular muse, thus creating a new poetry. Imitators arose in the following centuries, but most of their epics are little more than chronicles in verse. They include three by Jeronymo Corte Real, and one each by Pereira Brandao, Francisco de Andrade, Rodriguez Lobo, Pereira de Castro, S5, de Menezes, and Garcia de Mascarenhas.
The classical plays.—SA, de Miranda endeavored also to reform the drama and, shaping himself on Italian models, wrote the “Estrangeiros”. Jorge Ferreira de Vasconcellos had produced in “Eufrosina” the first prose play, but the comedies of Sà and Antonio Ferreira are artificial and stillborn productions, though the latter’s tragedy, “Ignez de Castro”, if dramatically weak, has something of Sophocles in the spirit and form of the verse.
Prose.—The best prose work of the sixteenth century is devoted to history and travel. Joao de Barros in his “Decadas”, continued by Diogo do Couto, described with mastery the deeds achieved by the Portuguese in the discovery and conquest of the lands and seas of the Orient. Damiao de Goes, humanist and friend of Erasmus, wrote with rare independence on the reign of King Manuel the Fortunate. Bishop Osorio treated of the same subject in Latin, but his interesting “Cartas” are in the vulgar tongue. Among others who dealt with the East are Castanheda, Antonio Galvao, Gaspar Correia, Bras de Albuquerque, Frei Gaspar da Cruz, and Frei Joao dos Santos. The chronicles of the kingdom were continued by Francisco de Andrade and Frei Bernardo da Cruz, and Miguel Leitao de Andrade compiled an interesting volume of “Miscellanea”. The travel literature of the period is too large for detailed mention: Persia, Syria, Abyssinia, Florida, and Brazil were visited and described and Father Lucena compiled a classic life of St. Francis Xavier, but the “Peregrination” of Mendes Pinto, a typical Conquistador, is worth all the story books put together for its extraordinary adventures told in a vigorous style, full of color and life, while the “Historia Tragico-Maritima”, a record of notable shipwrecks between 1552 and 1604, has good specimens of simple anonymous narrative. The dialogues of Samuel Usque, a Lisbon Jew, also deserve mention. Religious subjects were usually treated in Latin, but among moralists who used the vernacular were Frei Heitor Pinto, Bishop Arraez, and Frei Thorne de Jesus, whose “Trabalhos de Jesus” has appeared in many languages.
VI. SEVENTEENTH CENTURY.—The general inferiority of seventeenth-century literature to that of the preceding age has been charged to the new royal absolutism, the Inquisition, the Index, and the exaggerated humanism of the Jesuits who directed higher education; nevertheless, had a man of genius appeared he would have overcome all obstacles. In fact letters shared in the national decline. The taint of Gongorism and Marinism attacked all the Seiscentistas, as may be seen in the “Fenix Renascida”, and rhetoric conquered style. The Revolution of 1640 liberated Portugal, but could not undo the effects of the sixty years’ union with Spain. The use of Spanish continued among the upper class and was preferred by many authors who desired a larger audience. Spain had given birth to great writers for whom the Portuguese forgot the earlier ones of their own land. The foreign influence was strongest in the drama. The leading Portuguese playwrights wrote in Spanish, and in the national tongue only poor religious pieces and a witty comedy by D. Francisco Manuel de Mello, “Autodo Fidalgo Aprendiz”, were produced. The numerous Academies which arose with exotic names aimed at raising the level of letters, but they spent themselves in discussing ridiculous theses and determined the triumph of pedantry and bad taste. Yet though culteranismo and conceptismo infected nearly everyone, the century did not lack its big names.
Lyric Poetry.—Melodious verses relieve the dullness of the pastoral romances of Rodriguez Lobo, while his “Corte na Aldea” is a book of varied interest in elegant prose. The versatile D. Francisco Manuel de Mello, in addition to his sonnets on moral subjects, wrote pleasing imitations of popular romances, but is at his best in a reasoned but vehement “Memorial to John IV”, in the witty “Apologos Dialogues”, and in the homely philosophy of the “Carta de Guia de Casados”, prose classics. Other poets of the period are Soror Violante do Ceo, and Frei Jeronymo Vahia, convinced Gongorists, Frei Bernardo de Brito with the “Sylvia de Lizardo”, and the satirists, D. Thomas de Noronha and Antonio Serrao de Castro.
Prose.—The century had a richer output in prose than in verse, and history, biography, sermons, and epistolary correspondence all flourished. Writers on historical subjects were usually friars who worked in their cells and not, as in the sixteenth century, travelled men and eye-witnesses of the events they describe. They occupied themselves largely with questions of form and are better stylists than historians. Among the five contributors to the ponderous “Monarchia Lusitana”, only the conscientious Frei Antonio Brandao fully realized the importance of documentary evidence. Frei Bernardo de Brito begins his work with the creation and ends it where he should have begun; he constantly mistakes legend for fact, but was a patient investigator and a vigorous narrator. Frei Luiz de Sousa, a famous stylist, worked up existing materials into the classical hagiography “Vida de D. Frei Bertholameu dos Martyres” and “Annaes d’el Rei D. Joao III”. Manoel de Faria y Sousa, historian and arch-commentator of Camoens, by a strange irony of fate chose Spanish as his vehicle, as did Mello for his classic account of the Catalonian War, while Jacintho Freire de Andrade told in grandiloquent language the story of the justice-loving viceroy, D. Joao de Castro.
Ecclesiastical eloquence was at its best in the seventeenth century and the pulpit filled the place of the press of today. The originality and imaginative power of his sermons are said to have won for Father Antonio Vieira in Rome the title of “Prince of Catholic Orators” and though they and his letters exhibit some of the prevailing faults of taste, he is none the less great both in ideas and expression. The discourses and devotional treatises of the Oratorian Manuel Bernardes, who was a recluse, have a calm and sweetness that we miss in the writings of a man of action like Vieira and, while equally rich, are purer models of classic Portuguese prose. He is at his best in “Luz e Calor” and the “Nova Floresta”. Letter writing is represented by such master hands as D. Francisco Manuel de Mello in familiar epistles, Frei Antonio das Chargas in spiritual, and by five short but eloquent documents of human affection, the “Cartas de Marianna Alcoforada”.
VIII. EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.—Affectation continued to mark the literature of the first half of the eighteenth century, but signs of a change gradually appeared and ended in that complete literary reformation known as the Romantic Movement. Distinguished men who fled abroad to escape the prevailing despotism did much for intellectual progress by encouragement and example. Verney criticized the obsolete educational methods and exposed the literary and scientific decadence in the “Verdadeiro Methodo de Estudar”, while the various Academies and Arcadias, wiser than their predecessors, worked for purity of style and diction, and translated the best foreign classics.
The Academies.—The Academy of History, established by John V in 1720 in imitation of the French Academy, published fifteen volumes of learned “Memoirs” and laid the foundations for a critical study of the annals of Portugal, among its members being Caetano de Sousa, author of the voluminous “Historia da Casa Real”, and the bibliographer Barbosa Machado. The Royal Academy of Sciences, founded in 1780, continued the work and placed literary criticism on a sounder basis, but the principal exponents of belles-lettres belonged to the Arcadias.
The Arcadias.—Of these the most important was the Arcadia Ulisiponense established in 1756 by the poet Cruz e Silva—”to form a school of good example in eloquence and poetry “—and it included the most considered writers of the time. Garcao composed the “Cantata de Dido”, a classic gem, and many excellent sonnets, odes, and epistles. The bucolic verse of Quita has the tenderness and simplicity of that of Bernardin Ribeiro, while in the mock-heroic poem, “Hyssope”, Cruz e Silva satirizes ecclesiastical jealousies, local types, and the prevailing gallomania with real humor. Intestine disputes led to the dissolution of the Arcadia in 1774, but it had done good service by raising the standard of taste and introducing new poetical forms. Unfortunately its adherents were too apt to content themselves with imitating the ancient classics and the Quinhentistas and they adopted a cold, reasoned style of expression, without emotion or coloring. Their whole outlook was painfully academic. Many of the Arcadians followed the example of a latter-day Mrecenas, the Conde de Ericeira, and endeavored to nationalize the pseudo-classicism which obtained in France. In 1790 the “New Arcadia” came into being and had in Bocage a man who, under other conditions, might have been a great poet. His talent led him to react against the general mediocrity and though he achieved no sustained flights, his sonnets vie with those of Camoens. He was a master of short improvised lyrics as of satire, which he used to effect in the “Pena de Taliao” against Agostinho de Macedo.
This turbulent priest constituted himself a literary dictator and in “Os Burros” surpassed all other bards in invective; moreover he sought to supplant the Lusiads by a tasteless epic, “Oriente”. He, however, introduced the didactic poem, his odes reach a high level, and his letters and political pamphlets display learning and versatility, but his influence on letters was hurtful. The only other Arcadian worthy of mention is Curvo Semedo, but the “Dissidents”, a name given to those poets who remained outside the Arcadias, include three men who show independence and a sense of reality, Jose Anastacio da Cunha, Nicolao Tolentino, and Francisco Manoel de Nascimento, better known as Filinto Elysio. The first versified in a philosophic and tender strain, the second sketched the custom and follies of the time in quintilhas of abundant wit and realism, the third spent a long life of exile in Paris in reviving the cult of the sixteenth—century poets, purified the language of Gallicisms and enriched it by numerous works, original and translated. Though lacking imagination, his contos, or scenes of Portuguese life, strike a new note of reality, and his blank verse translation of the “Martyrs” of Chateaubriand is a high performance. Shortly before his death he became a convert to the Romantic Movement, for whose triumph in the person of Almeida-Garrett he had prepared the way.
Brazilian Poetry.—During the eighteenth century the colony of Brazil began to contribute to Portuguese letters. Manoel da Costa wrote a number of Petrarchian sonnets, Manoel Ignacio da Silva Alvarenga showed himself an ardent lyricist and cultivator of form, Thomas Antonio Gonzaga became famous by the harmonious verses of his love poem “Marilia do Dirceu”, while the “Poesias sacral” of Sousa Caldas have a certain mystical charm though metrically hard. In epic poetry the chief name is that of Basilio da Gama, whose “Uruguay” deals with the struggle between the Portuguese and the Paraguay Indians. It is written in blank verse and has some notable episodes. The “Caramuru” of Santa Rita Durso begins with the discovery of Bahia and contains, in a succession of pictures, the history of Brazil. The passages descriptive of native customs are well written and these poems are superior to anything of the kind produced contemporaneously by the mother country.
Prose.—The prose writing of the century is mainly dedicated to scientific subjects, but the letters of Antonio da Costa, Antonio Ribeiro Sanches, and Alexandre de Gusmao have literary value and those of the celebrated Cavalheiro d’Oliveira, if not so correct, are even more informing.
Drama.—Though a Court returned to Lisbon in 1640, it preferred, for one hundred and fifty years, Italian opera and French plays to vernacular representations. Early in the eighteenth century several authors sprung from the people vainly attempted to found a national drama. Their pieces mostly belong to low comedy. The “Operas Portuguezas” of Antonio Jose da Silva, produced between 1733 and 1741, have a real comic strength and a certain originality, and, like those of Nicolau Luiz, exploit with wit the faults and foibles of the age. The latter divided his attention between heroic comedies and comedies de capa y espada and, though wanting in ideas and taste, they enjoyed a long popularity. At the same time the Arcadia endeavored to raise the standard of the stage, drawing inspiration from the contemporary French drama, but its members lacked dramatic talent and achieved little. Garcao wrote two bright comedies, Quita some stillborn tragedies, and Manuel de Figueredo compiled plays in prose and verse on national subjects, which fill thirteen volumes, but he could not create characters.
IX. THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.—A. Poetry.—The early nineteenth century witnessed a literary reformation which was commenced by Almeida-Garrett who had become acquainted with English and French Romanticism in exile and based his work on the national traditions. In the narrative poem “Camoes” (1825) he broke with the established rules of composition and followed it with “Flores sem Fructo” and a collection of ardent love poems “Folhas Cahidas”, while the clear elegant prose of this true artist is seen in a miscellany of romance and criticism, “Viagens na minha terra”. The poetry of the austere Herculano has a religious or patriotic motive and is reminiscent of Lamennais. The movement initiated by Garrett and Herculano became ultra-Romantic with Castilho, a master of metre, who lacked ideas, and the verses of Joao de Lemos and the melancholy Soares de Passos record a limited range of personal emotions, while their imitators voice sentiments which they have not felt deeply or at all. Thomas Ribeiro, author of the patriotic poem “D. Jayme”, is sincere, but belongs to this same school which thought too much of form and melody. In 1865 some young poets led by Anthero de Quental and Theophilo Braga rebelled against the domination over letters which Castilho had assumed, and, under foreign influences, proclaimed the alliance of philosophy with poetry. A fierce pamphlet war heralded the downfall of Castilho and poetry gained in breadth and reality, though in many instances it became non-Christian and revolutionary. Quental produced finely wrought, pessimistic sonnets inspired by neo-Buddhistic and German agnostic ideas, while Braga, a Positivist, compiled an epic of humanity, the “Visao dos Tempos”. Guerra Junqueiro is mainly ironical in the “Morte de D. Joao”, in “Patria” he evokes and scourges the Braganza kings in some powerful scenes, and in “Os Simples” interprets nature and rural life by the light of a pantheistic imagination. Gomes Leal is merely anti-Christian with touches of Baudelaire. Joao de Deus belonged to no school; an idealist, he drew inspiration from religion and women, and the earlier verses of the “Campo de Flores” are marked, now by tender feeling, now by sensuous mysticism, all very Portuguese. Other true poets are the sonneteer Joao Penha, the Parnassian Goncalves Crespo, and the symbolist Eugenio de Castro. The reaction against the use of verse for the propaganda of radicalism in religion and politics has succeeded and the most considered poets of today Correa de Oliveira and Lopes Vieira, are natural singers with no extraneous purpose to serve. They owe much to the “S6” of Antonio Nobre, a book of true race poetry.
B. Drama.—After producing some classical tragedies, the best of which is “Cato”, Garrett undertook the reform of the stage on independent lines, though he learnt something from the Anglo-German school. Anxious to found a national drama, he chose subjects from Portuguese history and, beginning with “An Auto of Gil Vicente“, produced a series of prose plays which culminated in “Brother Luiz de Sousa”, a masterpiece. His imitators, Mendes Leal and Pinheiro Chagas, fell victims to ultra-Romanticism, but Fernando Caldeira and Gervasio Lobato wrote life-like and witty comedies and recently the regional pieces of D. Joao da Camara have won success, even outside Portugal. At the present time, with the historical and social plays of Lopes de Mendonca, Julio Dantas, Marcellino Mesquita, and Eduardo Schwalbach, drama is more flourishing than ever before and Garrett’s work has fructified fifty years after his death.
C. The Novel is really a creation of the nineteenth century and it began with historical romances in the style of Walter Scott by Herculano, to whom succeeded Rebello da Silva with “A Mocidade de D. Joao V”, Andrade Corvo, and others. The romance of manners is due to the versatile Camillo Castello Branco, a rich impressionist who describes to perfection the life of the early part of the century in “Amor de Perdigao”, “Novellas do Minho”, and other books. Gomes Coelho (Julio Diniz), a romantic idealist and subjective writer, is known best by “As Pupillas do Snr Reitor”, but the great creative artist was Eca de Queiroz, founder of the Naturalist School, and author of “Primo Basilio”, “Correspondencia de Fradique Mendes”, “A Cidade e as Serras”. His characters live and many of his descriptive and satiric passages have become classical. Among the lesser novelists are Pinheiro Chagas, Arnaldo Gama, Luiz de Magalhaes, Teixeira de Queiroz, and Malheiro Dias.
D. Other prose.—History became a science with Herculano whose “Historia de Portugal” is also valuable for its sculptural style and Oliveira Martins ranks high as a painter of scenes and characters in “Os Filhos de D. Joao” and “Vida de Nun’ Alvares”. A strong gift of humor distinguishes the “Farpas” of Ramaiho Ortigao, as well as the work of Fialho d’Almeida and Julio Cesar Machado, and literary criticism had able exponents in Luciano Cordeiro and Moniz Barreto. The “Panorama” under the editor-ship of Herculano exercised a sound and wide influence over letters, but since that time the press has become less and less literary and now treats of little save politics.
X. BRAZILIAN LITERATURE.—The literature of independent Brazil really began with the Romantic Movement, which was introduced in 1836 by Domingos de Magalhaes, whose “Suspiros Poeticos” reveal the influence of Lamartine. This religious phase was immediately followed by that of Indianism suggested by Chateaubriand and Fenimore Cooper, which had its chief exponent in Gonsalves Dias, a melodious lyricist. Byron and Musset were the fathers of the next phase of Romanticism and its interpreters included Alvares de Azevedo, the introducer of humor, and Casimiro de Abreu, two poets whose popularity has endured. Lucindo Rebello belongs to the same epoch, but shows a more spontaneous inspiration, and the verse of Fagundes Varella forms a link with a new school in which the ardor and humanitarianism of Hugo inspired the patriotic muse of Tobias Barreto, an objective poet of wide sympathies, imagination, and feeling, and of Castro Alves, who sang the horrors of slavery while, later still, Parnassianism overran the whole of poetry.
Brazil has yet to produce drama, but in the romance she has acknowledged masters in Jose de Alencar whose “Guarany” and “Iracema” are standard books, and in the psychologist, Machado de Assis. The Romanticists mostly addressed themselves to the emotions rather than to the intelligence, but Machado de Assis rises to a more general conception of life, both in prose and verse. In “Bras Cubas” he has the irony of Sterne, and the pure, simple diction and distinguished style of Garrett, together with a reserve rarely found in a modern Latin writer. Brazil has now emancipated herself from mere imitation of foreign models and her novelists and critics of today show an originality and strength which promises much for the future of a literature still in its youth.