Chrysogonus, Saint, Martyr, suffered at Aquileia, probably during the persecution of Diocletian, was buried there, and publicly venerated by the faithful of that region. His name is found in the so-called “Martyrologium Hieronymianum” on two different days, May 31 and November 24, with the topographical note, “in Aquileia” (“Martyrol. Hier.”, ed. De Rossi; Duchesne in “Acta SS.”, November II). The Weissenburg manuscript of the “Mart. Hieron.” alone mentions the primitive topographical indication on the latter date; the Echternach manuscript says, “Romae natale Crisogoni”, while under November 23 Chrysogonus appears again among the Roman martyrs. Very early indeed the veneration of this martyr of Aquileia was transferred to Rome, where a titular church, in Trastevere, bears his name to this day. This church (Titulus Chrysogoni) is first mentioned in the signatures of the Roman Synod of 499 (Duchesne, “Notes sur la topographie de Rome au moyen age” in “Melanges d’archeol. et d’histoire”, VII, 227), but it probably dates from the fourth century (De Rossi, “Inscript. christ.”, II,152, N. 27; “Bulletin di archeol. crist.”, 1887, 168). It is possible that the founder of the church was a certain Chrysogonus, and that, on account of the similarity of name, the church was soon devoted to the veneration of the martyr of Aquileia; it is also possible that from the beginning, for some unknown reason, it was consecrated to St. Chrysogonus, and takes its name from him. In a similar way the veneration of St. Anastasia of Sirmium was transplanted to Rome (see Saint Anastasia). About the sixth century arose a legend of the martyr that made him a Roman and brought him into relation with St. Anastasia, evidently to explain the veneration of St. Chrysogonus in the Roman church that bears his name. According to this legend, Chrysogonus, at first a functionary of the vicarius Urbis, was the Christian teacher of Anastasia, daughter of the noble Roman Praetextatus. Being thrown into prison during the persecution of Diocletian, he comforted by his letters the severely afflicted Anastasia. By order of Diocletian, Chrysogonus was brought before the emperor at Aquileia, condemned to death, and beheaded. His corpse, thrown into the sea, was washed ashore and buried by the aged priest, Zoilus. In the legend the death of the saint is placed on the 23rd of November. In the actual Roman martyrology his feast is celebrated on November 24; by the Greeks on April 16.
J. P. KIRSCH