Arizona, said to have been, probably in the original form of the word, Arizonac, and in this form a Pima (Indian) word of which the meaning is unknown. With perhaps less probability there has been assigned to the word a Spanish origin. The motto of Arizona is Ditat Deus. It is one of the continental territories of the United States of America, bounded on the north by the State of Utah, on the south by the Republic of Mexico, on the east by the Territory of New Mexico, and on the west by the States of California and Nevada, between latitude 31° and 37°, and longitude 109° and 115°.
HISTORY.—The region embraced in the Territory was ceded to the United States by Mexico, a portion in 1848, by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, and the remainder in 1854, by the Gadsden treaty. Until 1863, this region was part of the Territory of New Mexico, and at the time of its acquisition by the United States, Indians were almost the only inhabitants of this country, reputed to be rich in precious metals. Among those who flocked to the new domain were fugitives from justice, persons expelled by the Vigilance Committee of San Francisco, and Mexicans of a degraded class. The history of the early years following the cession is a sad record of violence and general lawlessness among the white inhabitants, and of deplorable Indian troubles. “Murder and other crimes are committed with impunity”, is the statement of President Buchanan to Congress in 1858, when repeating his recommendation of 1857 that a territorial government be established, a statement and recommendation which he reiterated in 1859. Examining the causes of the Indian troubles, the traveller, Raphael Pumpelly, contrasts the selfish aims of the frontiersmen with the missionary zeal of the Jesuits who had formerly labored in Spanish America, and their success in elevating the condition of the Indians, a success whose limit “was always determined by the cupidity of the home government, and of the mining population”. Quite contrary to the fact, a report prevailed about the time of the cession, that the Jesuits themselves had worked mines in the region during the former years. Although evil conditions continued, the Territory of Arizona was not established by law until 1863. In 1864 the new Territory was invaded by the forces of the Southern Confederacy which were defeated by volunteer troops of California. Internal disorders did not cease on the organization of a territorial government. In 1870 the Territory was much harried by Indians, and in 1871 its Governor declared that “all the Arizonians felt discouraged”. Even in 1882, President Arthur conveyed to Congress the report of the Governor of Arizona that violence and anarchy prevailed. This condition was at that time largely attributed to “Cowboys”, and Indian disturbances were prevalent for some years thereafter.
POPULATION, CLIMATE, RESOURCES, ETC.—The Territory’s seat of government, temporarily established in 1864 at Prescott, was, in 1867, fixed at Tucson, and, in 1877, transferred to Prescott again. Phoenix is the present capital. The twelfth United States census, besides 24,644 Indians, reports a population, in 1900, of 122,931. By the census of 1860 the population of Arizona, then a county of New Mexico, appears to have been only 6,482. Of the population in 1900, there were 98,698 natives and 24,233 foreigners. Of negro descent there were 1,848. Including in the list those who could only read, with those who could neither read nor write, 25.4 per cent of the males of voting age were illiterate. Of males 15 years of age and over, 49.5 per cent were single, 43.6 per cent married, and.7 per cent divorced. Of females 15 years of age and over, 21 per cent were single, 64.8 per cent married and 1 per cent divorced.
According to the report of the chief of the Weather Bureau, the highest temperature observed at any weather station in Arizona during the year 1903 was 120°, the lowest 18°. Two stations report each of these extremes. The smallest rainfall reported for the same year from any station is 0.80 of an inch, the greatest 25.05 inches. In October, 1903, a trace of snow is reported at one station; there is no report of snow in November at any station, and for the following six months, to May, 1904, inclusive, the greatest fall reported is 41.4 inches, two stations reporting only a slight fall of snow. Agriculture is greatly dependent upon irrigation. Limited by supply of water for irrigation, the area of farming land is probably 2,000,000 acres out of 72,000,000. About 40,000,000 acres, or more than one-half the area of the Territory, are available for grazing lands of superior quality. Mines of gold, of silver, of copper, and of coal are to be found in the Territory. Of manufacturing establishments there were 169 in the year 1905, with a capital of $14,395,654. The value of products was $28,083,192. The value of the products of smelting and refining copper comprise 81.1 per cent of the total of all industries, and these, with cars and general shop construction and repairs by steam railroad companies, flour and grist-mill products, lumber and timber products, are the four leading industries. There are 1,509 miles of railroads. (See Council Memorial No. 1, Appendix B, in The Revised Statutes of Arizona Territory, 1901, p. 1511.) The assessed valuation of taxable property for the year 1900 is stated to have been $33,782,465.99.
TERRITORIAL GOVERNMENT.—In the same manner as for other Territories of the United States, the governor of Arizona is appointed by the President. A legislative assembly elected by counties meets every two years. There is no female suffrage except at elections of school trustees. A Bill of Rights provides that the civil and political rights of no person are to be enlarged or abridged on account of his opinions or belief concerning religious matters. It is also provided by law that no person shall be incompetent to testify as a witness on account of religious opinions or for want of religious belief. An elaborate system of public-school education is established by law. There are a university and two normal schools and more than 15,000 children are educated at the public schools. (See above cited Memorial.) Among the “powers and duties” of boards of trustees of school districts, a statute mentions the excluding “from school and school libraries of all books, publications or papers of a sectarian, partisan or denominational character”. No books, tracts or papers of a sectarian character are to be used in or introduced into any public school, nor “any sectarian doctrine taught therein”. No school funds are to be received by “any school whatever under the control of any religious denomination”. A teacher is subject to revocation of certificate or diploma “who shall use any sectarian or denominational books or teach any sectarian doctrine, or conduct any religious exercises in his school”.
CHURCH IN ARIZONA., in 1850, New Mexico, having been ceded to the United States, was made a vicariate Apostolic and entrusted to the Right Rev. John B. Lamy, formerly a priest of the Diocese of Cincinnati. On his arrival, as he stated to the Propaganda in 1865 when referring to conditions happily passed away, he found in the vast vicariate twenty priests, neglectful and extortionate, churches in ruins, and no schools. In 1853 New Mexico was erected into the Diocese of Santa Fe, and Dr. Lamy became its first bishop. The territory added to the national domain by the Gadsden treaty, in 1854, was placed under his jurisdiction, and he, in 1859, sent Very Rev. J. P. Macheboeuf to Tucson. Until a rude chapel could be erected Mass was said there in a private house. In 1863, two Jesuits undertook the mission, and one of these priests “revived Catholicity”, to quote the words of Dr. John Gilmary Shea, “at the splendid old church of San Xavier del Bac” (the cornerstone of which seems to have been laid in 1783), “long a solitary monument in a wilderness, the neighboring inhabitants having been driven off by hostile Indians”. During the Civil War ecclesiastical affairs continued peaceful, and in 1865 the bishop reported to the Propaganda an estimated Catholic population of five thousand in Arizona, and a great improvement in ecclesiastical matters. In 1868, Rev. J. B. Salpointe was appointed Vicar Apostolic of Arizona, and consecrated Bishop of Doryla, June 20, 1869. The vicariate Apostolic was erected into the Diocese of Tucson in 1897, the Rev. P. Bourgade, afterwards Archbishop of Santa Fe, becoming its first bishop. The diocese comprises the whole Territory, 112,920 square miles, with a portion, amounting to 18,292 square miles, of New Mexico. In the diocese there are 25 secular priests, 11 regular priests, 21 churches, with resident priests, 31 missions with churches, and 95 stations, 6 parochial and 4 Indian schools, the total of young people educated in Catholic institutions being 2,000. The Catholic population is about 40,000. A law of the Territory, passed in 1903, permits “any person being the archbishop, bishop, president, trustee in trust, president of stake, overseer, presiding elder, rabbi, or clergyman of any church or religious society” to become a corporation sole “with continual perpetual succession ‘. (For Arizona Missions. see New Mexico.)
CHARLES W. SLOANE