Salzburg, Archdiocese of (SALISBURGENSIS), conterminous with the Austrian crownland of the same name.. The Romans appeared in the lands south of the Danube under Emperor Augustus, laid out roads, founded towns, and turned the territory into a province. Salzburg belonged to Noricum. Christianity was introduced by individual colonists, artisans, and soldiers; St. Maximilian, Bishop of Laureacum (Lorch), is mentioned as the first martyr of Noricum during the era of the persecutions. Although Constantine brought peace to the Church, the Romanized territory was subsequently exposed on all sides to the attacks of barbarian peoples, and the last representative of Roman civilization in Noricum was St. Severus (d. 482). He visited Cucullae (Kuchel near Hallein) and Juvavum (Salzburg), where he found a church already established and witnessed the martyrdom of the priest-abbot Maximus. His apostolate was “the last ray before utter darkness”; the whole territory was soon devastated by barbarian tribes, and it was only about 700 that Christian civilization again made its appearance. St. Rupert, Bishop of Worms, baptized Duke Theodo of Bavaria, erected at Waldersee a church in honor of St. Peter, and made Juvavum, where he found the Roman buildings over-grown with brambles, his episcopal seat. The cathedral monastery was also named after St. Peter, and Rupert’s niece, Avendrid, founded the convent of Nonnberg. St. Boniface completed the work of St. Rupert, placed the Diocese of Salzburg under the Primatial See of Mainz, and substituted the Benedictines for the Irish monks in St. Peter’s. He had a dispute with their abbot-bishop Virgil concerning the existence of the antipodes. Virgil dispatched the regionary bishop Modestus to Carinthia, of which the latter became the apostle. Under Virgil the valuable “Liber confraternitatum”, or confraternity book of St. Peter’s, was begun.
Arno, the successor of Virgil, enjoyed the respect of Charlemagne, who, after overthrowing the Avars, assigned to him as his missionary territory all the land between the Danube, the Raab, and the Drave. While Arno was at Rome attending to some business for Charlemagne, Leo III appointed him archbishop over the bishops of Bavaria. When the dispute concerning the delimitation of their ecclesiastical provinces broke out between Aquileia and Salzburg, Charlemagne declared the Drave the boundary. The dignity of the archbishops as territorial sovereigns must be also traced to Charlemagne. Arno took advantage of the intellectual life at the court of the great emperor to have manuscripts copied in 150 volumes, thus forming the oldest library in Austria. The efforts of Duke Wratislaus of Moravia to withdraw his territory from the ecclesiastical influence of the Germans prepared great trouble for Archbishop Adalwin. Adrian II appointed Methodius Archbishop of Pannonia and Moravia; it was only when Wratislaus had fallen into the hands of Louis the German that Adalwin could protest effectually against the invasion of his rights. Methodius appeared at the Synod of Salzburg, was struck in the face, and was kept in close confinement for two and a half years. To the endeavor of the archbishop to demonstrate to the pope the justice of his claims we are indebted for the important work, “De conversione Bulgarorum et Carantanorum libellus”. However, Adalwin was compelled to release Archbishop Methodius at the command of the pope. Darkness once more settled on the land, when the Magyars ravaged the great Moravian Empire; not a church remained standing in Pannonia, as the bishops informed the pope, and Archbishop Thiadmar fell in battle. Michaelbeuern was set aflame. With the crushing defeat of the Magyars at Lechfeld (955) begins a henceforth unarrested Christian civilization in Salzburg. When, shortly after this, Liudolf of Swabia and Conrad of Lothringen rose against Otto the Great and induced Archbishop Herold to become their associate, the latter was seized, blinded, deposed, and finally banished.
The tenth century is for Italy the sceculum obscurum, the era of the feuds of the opposing factions of the nobility. In Germany, on the contrary, the episcopate flourished, and in this prosperity Salzburg also participated. The emperor’s brother, Bishop Bruno of Cologne, the “bishop-maker”, consecrated Friedrich for Salzburg, who in turn consecrated St. Wolfgang Bishop of Ratisbon. Friedrich declared the monastery of St. Peter independent. In 996 Archbishop Hartwik received the right to coin money; in the presence of Saint Henry II and his spouse Kunigunde, the archbishop consecrated the church on the Nonnberg. When St. Hemma, Countess of Friesach, founded the convent of Gurk in 1042, the first abbess, Ita, was chosen from Nonnberg. In Salzburg the noble tendencies and great principles of the age of Gregory VII and his immediate successors, aiming at the sanctification of the Church, the success of the Crusades, the fostering of religious life among the people, and the development of monastic life, were always encouraged. The first archbishop of this period was Gebhard. Three students had set out for Paris to study philosophy and theology; during a night spent in a forest-glade near a spring, they confided to one another their ideals for the future—each wished to become a bishop, and each vowed in this contingency the foundation of a monastery. Their hopes were gratified: Adalbert became Bishop of Wurzburg and founded Lambach in Upper Austria; St. Altmann of Passau founded Gottweig for twelve canons, who were replaced twelve years later by Benedictines from St. Blasien in the Black Forest; Gebhard founded Admont (1074) and the Diocese of Gurk (1072). These bishops were the mainstays of the “cause of St. Peter” in Germany. They held aloof from the Synod of Worms to which Henry IV summoned the bishops and abbots to declare their opposition to the pope. Henry therefore named an anti-bishop for Salzburg, Bertold of Moosburg, and Gebhard had to endure an exile of nine years; shortly before his death he was able to return, and was buried at Admont (1088). His successor Theimo consecrated the church and monastery of St. Paul in Carinthia. Defeated by the royal bishop, Bertold, he was kept in strict confinement for five years at Freisach; scarcely had he recovered his liberty when he joined in the crusade of Guelph of Bavaria, was again thrown into prison, and suffered a horrible martyrdom (1102). On the abdication of Henry IV, Count Conrad I of Abensberg was elected archbishop; Conrad accompanied Henry V to Rome, when he went thither to receive imperial coronation. Paschal II and Henry came to an agreement according to which the Church should renounce all claim to the imperial fiefs, and the emperor all claim to investiture. When this condition, on which the coronation was to take place February 12, 1111, became known, the German bishops and even the secular nobility protested against it, fearing lest by an onslaught on all the imperial fiefs the king should make his power absolute, The pope was held in confinement, the priests robbed of their rich vestments, the church plate, and even the buckles of their shoes. When the archbishop complained of this treatment, a German knight threatened to cleave his head in twain. His dignified bearing rendering it impossible to maintain his position in Salzburg, he lived an exile until the investiture strife was definitively settled by the Calistine Concordat of 1122. Conrad henceforth devoted all his energy to his diocese; he replaced the secular clergy at the cathedral by Augustinian Canons, whose rule he himself adopted in 1122, and established a convent of canonesses. At Seckau also he established the canons, and appointed the celebrated Gerhoh provost of Reichersberg. He meanwhile granted establishments to the Benedictines (Georgenberg, Fiecht), Cistercians (Victring in Carinthia), Praemonstratensians (Wilten near Innsbruck). The Church of St. Peter was also rebuilt in Romanesque style; while previously the monks of St. Peter’s had elected the archbishop, they abdicated this right in favor of the canons by the agreement of 1139 between the abbot and archbishop.
In the first contest between the papacy and empire during the Hohenstaufen period, the archbishops of Salzburg had taken the side of the Guelphs. When, in 1159, Frederick I declared in favor of Victor IV, the creature of two Ghibelline cardinals, against Alexander III, Archbishop Eberhard I, Count of Hippoldstein, steadily supported Alexander. Barbarossa left him in peaceful possession of his see until his death. However, his successor, Conrad II, son of Leopold III the Pious, aroused Frederick’s anger, and died a fugitive at Admont in 1168. Barbarossa now stood at the acme of his fortune. He opposed to Archbishop Adalbert, son of King Wladislaus II of Bohemia, as anti-bishop Provost Henry of Berchtesgaden; however, at the Diet of Venice (1177)—”the last great diet of the Middle Ages“, at which pope and emperor exchanged embraces—it was agreed that both bishops should abdicate, and that Conrad III of Wittelsbach should receive the archiepiscopal see, and appoint the imperial archbishop to the See of Mainz. Through Conrad the archbishops of Salzburg received the rank of legate Apostolic throughout the whole ecclesiastical province of Noricum, and therewith the dignity of cardinal. On Conrad’s death Adalbert again succeeded to the archdiocese. On account of his excessive strictness he was confined in the castle of Werfen for fourteen days by his own officials. When Frederick II adopted the policy of his father in a still more exaggerated form, and was consequently excommunicated by Gregory IX, Archbishop Eberhard II of Regensberg (Switzerland) and his friend Duke Leopold VI brought about the Peace of San Germano (1230). The Christian leaders met at Anagni, whither the archbishop also came, but the duke died on the way to the meeting. The archbishop consecrated the monastery of Lilienfeld, founded by the duke, and interred him there. Meanwhile the zealous archbishop had created within his territory three new dioceses to give increased efficiency to the care of souls: Chiemsee (1216), Seckau (1218), St. Andrew’s in the Lavantal (1225). For these dioceses also the archbishop was not only to nominate, but also to confirm and consecrate. On account of his friendly relations with the emperor it is evident that he exercised the prerogatives of sovereignty, and is to be honored as “the founder of the land of Salzburg”. For refusing to publish the Decree of the First General Council of Lyons, which excommunicated Frederick and relieved him of his empire, Eberhard also incurred excommunication. When he died suddenly the following year, still under the ban, his body was buried in an annex of the parish-church of Radstadt, but forty years later it was transferred to consecrated ground in Salzburg cathedral.
During the Austrian, and the almost simultaneous German, interregna Salzburg shared in the general confusion, and had its anti-bishop. Archbishop Philip, Count of Ortenburg, was more warrior than cleric and steadfastly refused to accept priestly ordination. In foreign politics he favored William of Holland, the candidate for the throne set up by the papal party; in Austria he espoused the cause of Premysl Ottaar favored by the pope. The decree of Alexander IV that each bishop-elect must be consecrated within half a year affected Philip immediately; as he paid no attention, Bishop Ulrich of Seckau was appointed in his place, and finally he himself was excommunicated and Salzburg placed under an interdict. The people thereupon drove Philip out and invited Ulrich to enter into possession; as, however, the latter was unable to repay the money which he had been compelled to borrow in Rome, he also was expelled. He was finally able to return to Salzburg, but merely celebrated the feast of Corpus Christi in 1265 (which Urban IV had extended to the whole Church the year before) and then resigned. Rudolph of Habsburg brought to a close the interregnum. Throughout the whole series of years and on all important occasions including the investiture of his sons, Albert and Rudolph, with Austria, Styria, Krain, and the Wendish March (December 27, 1280), Archbishop Frederick II of Walchen (Pinzgau) was a faithful supporter of Rudolph, and must thus be numbered among the founders of Habsburg rule in Austria. Human inclinations and alliances are subject to rapid change. Rudolph’s son, Duke Albert I of Austria, engaged in an almost uninterrupted feud for ten years with Archbishops Rudolph of Hoheneck and Conrad IV of Praitenfrut. Repeatedly the armies stood so close to each other that “each could see the white in his opponents’ eyes”; several towns were demolished (Friesach). The mischief-maker was Abbot Henry of Admont, who enjoyed Albert‘s confidence; no sooner had this warlike cleric met death from an arrow-wound received in the chase, than duke and archbishop found themselves on terms of peace and friendship (1297). During the succeeding period German history is dominated by the conflicts of the houses of Wittelsbach and Habsburg. The people of Salzburg remained true to the Habsburgs. During the struggle for the throne between Louis the Bavarian and Frederick III, Archbishop Frederick III of Leibnitz was declared an outlaw. During the seventy years’ residence of the popes in Avignon subsequent to 1309, the archbishops had to proceed thither to receive the pallium. When, in 1347, the frightful plague known as the Black Death swept through Salzburg, the Jews there were accused of poisoning the wells and subjected to cruel persecution.
In imitation of the confederated towns in Germany, five towns in the territory of Salzburg formed the Igelbund (1403). They presented to the new archbishop, Eberhard III of Neuhaus, an election capitulation demanding, in an instrument which was surrounded with their seals as a boar (Igel) with bristles, the redress of their grievances (taxes). Already the Jews had been widely accused of stabbing consecrated Hosts, which, it was said, were subsequently discovered emitting blood (Lower Austria and Carinthia). As similar desecrations were declared to have taken place in Salzburg, the Jews were banished in 1404 and a synodal ordinance declared a little later that they should be distinguishable by a pointed hat. During the Western Schism the attitude of the archbishops towards the popes varied. Archbishop Pilgrim II of Puchheim at first supported the Roman pope, Urban VI, but subsequently espoused the cause of the Avignon pontiff, Clement VII. His successor, Gregory of Osterwitz, also obtained the pallium from Boniface IX at Rome. When Gregory XII was pope at Rome and Benedict XIII at Avignon, the cardinals of both parties, wishing to end the Schism, summoned the Council of Pisa (1409). This assembly deposed both popes and elected Alexander V supreme pontiff, but, as the earlier popes refused to abdicate, there were now three popes. Archbishop Eberhard III supported the Pisan pope, John XXIII. In his affectionate care for the Church, King Sigismund associated himself with John in convening the General Council of Constance. Hus was already condemned when Eberhard arrived with a large retinue; however, the archbishop participated in the condemnation of Jerome of Prague. In 1428 Eberhard convened a great provincial synod of his bishops, the superiors of religious orders, and deputies of the University of Vienna; at this assembly earlier ecclesiastical regulations were renewed, and new measures adopted for the revival of ecclesiastical life. In the next year a provincial synod was again held. As the heresy of Wyclif and Hus threatened to infect the province, it was decreed that no one should permit a heretic to preach or harbor him: on the contrary, he should be denounced to the people. Dukes, counts etc. were to imprison all persons suspected of heresy; Jews should wear a cornered hat and their wives should carry attached to their clothing a small bell.
The Renaissance epoch was for Salzburg an era of cultural decay, caused by the incompetence of the territorial princes and the bad conditions of Austria under Emperor Frederick IV. The first Renaissance pope, Nicholas V, sent out legates to announce the jubilee indulgence, to promote a crusade against the Turks, and to inaugurate the reform of the clergy. Nicholas of Cusa on the Mosel (Cusanus), appointed legate for Germany, held a provincial synod at Salzburg (1451) in which monasteries were directed to return to the observance of the rule within the interval of a year. Three visitors (Abbot Martin von den Schotten, Abbot Laurence of Mariazell, and Prior Stephen of Melk) visited the Benedictine monasteries of Austria and Bavaria, and in about fifty established uniform obedience to the rule. Under Archbishop Bernhard the political and economic depression of the archdiocese was the deepest. Seeing the Turks ravaging the archiepiscopal lands in Carinthia, and the estates of his territory making ever increasing demands and imposing taxes of various kinds, Bernhard summoned a diet in 1473—the first held in the little archiepiscopal state. He resigned his office but recalled his resignation repeatedly, until finally, five years before his death, he really abdicated. At the close of this period Leonhard of Keutschach (d. 1519) revived religious life: with astounding energy he had the burgomasters and town councillors, who were imposing unjust burdens, arrested simultaneously and confined in the castle; all Jews were banished from the land. His closing years were embittered by his suffragan Matthus Lang, who, although not a priest, was Bishop of Gurk and cardinal, and aimed at the archiepiscopal see. Lang promised the cathedral chapter (monks) to effect its transformation into a chapter of secular priests, if the canons would recognize him as coadjutor with right of succession. The Bulls of Leo X, decreeing these changes, soon arrived. In ecclesiastical art, late Gothic ruled at Salzburg, as is gloriously demonstrated in the church on the Nonnberg and its crypts, the Margarethenkapelle in the cemetery of St. Peter, and the Franciscan church with its magnificent vault of netted work.
The primatial see, for which Matthaeus Lang had so passionately striven, was for him a martyr’s chair. Not yet a priest, the new ruler entered his episcopal city. Although unnoticed in official circles, the innovations emanating from Wittenberg were insinuating themselves into the archdiocese. Mining was being rapidly developed, and miners arrived from Saxony bringing with them the new doctrines and sectarian books. Lang strove to retain his subjects in the Faith: Luther proclaimed him a “monster”, the people of Salzburg besieged him in his fortress Hohen-Salzburg (the Latin War), and two successive risings of the peasants were the occasion of manifold horrors and of unspeakable suffering for the ruler and his land. Lang was present at the Second Diet of Speyer (1529); and in the following year held lengthy negotiations with Melanchthon at Augsburg. The fact that Lang invited lay persons to the provincial synod of 1537, at which it was resolved to send delegates to a general council, created an unpleasant commotion in Rome, since it was feared that this step presaged the formation of a national Church. In accordance with Ferdinand’s demand for the use of the chalice by the laity in 1564, Pius IV granted this privilege for Germany and the Archdioceses of Gran and Prague; however, as the emperor’s hopes were soon seen to be unfounded, the giving of Communion under both species ceased at Salzburg in 1571. The beneficent effects of the Council of Trent extended also to Salzburg, where, for the execution of its decrees, Archbishop Jacob of Kuen-Belasy summoned in 1569 a provincial council, according to Hauthaler the most important of all the synods of Salzburg, since through it “was secured for ever a solid foundation for church reform in this province in accordance with the spirit of the decrees of Trent”. Four years later he again convened a provincial council, especially notable as almost three centuries were to elapse before another provincial council was held in Germany.
The succeeding archbishops by wise moderation perserved their territory from the sufferings of the wars of religion, conducted elsewhere with bloodshed and cruelty. Lang’s successor, Archbishop Ernst, administered the archdiocese for fourteen years as “elected bishop”, although the pope had confirmed his election only on the condition that he should receive episcopal consecration within ten years, and although his brother, Duke William of Bavaria, was a strict Catholic. During this period flourished Theophrastus Paracelsus (Philip of Hohenheim), the celebrated physician and alchemist, also Berthold, Bishop of Chiemsee, a strict censor of his age (see Berthold of Chiemsee).
After the religious Peace of Augsburg Archbishop Wolf Dietrich (Wolfgang Theodorich) of Raitenau and his successors acted on the policy adopted there (cujus regio, ejus religio), and followed the precedent set by Protestant princes, when they gave their subjects the option of professing the religion of their fathers or emigrating. The task of influencing the people by sermon and exhortation was confided mainly to the Franciscans and Capuchins. The former were given the convent in St. Peter’s, where previously the daughters of the nobility and the townsfolk had been educated. Archbishop Wolf Dietrich also encountered opposition at Salzburg when he began to tear down the ancient Romanesque cathedral; years were consumed in the destruction of the venerable stone edifice. He commissioned Vincenzo Scamozzi to draw up the plan of a new cathedral, which was to surpass in magnificence everything in Germany. The cathedral was cross-shaped, had three naves, a central cupola, cross-arms ending in a semicircle, and two huge towers on the facade. However when the plan was completed and building was to be begun, the indefatigable archbishop found himself badly involved. The closing five years of his life were sad. To protect the salt-makers of Salzburg from the unjust customs regulations of Duke Maximilian of Bavaria, he resorted to military demonstrations, which constituted a breach of national peace. The soldiers of the duke took him prisoner, and brought him to the castle of Hohen-Salzburg. Here he was subjected to unworthy treatment, and, although a promise to abdicate if liberated was extorted from him, he was retained a prisoner until his death five years later (1612). His successor, Marcus Sitticus of Hohenems, who had so ill-used him, was a relative; it may be that Sitticus feared that the great recklessness of Wolf Dietrich would imperil the peace of the archdiocese. In 1614 Sitticus began the rebuilding of the cathedral, in which the architect, Santino Solair, “has bequeathed one of the most magnificent creations of the barocco style of architecture outside Italy” (Ilg). It was also this archbishop who finished the residence and castle of Mirabell, and restored Hellbrunn with its fountains. While Austria and Germany were ravaged in the Thirty Years’ War and civilization declined, Archbishop Paris, Count of Lodron, accomplished such fruitful works of peace that he is remembered as “the father of his country”. The Alma Benedictina (1623), for almost two hundred years the pride and joy of Salzburg, was his work; Ferdinand II granted it the power of conferring academic degrees in all four faculties. In 1628 Archbishop Lodron consecrated the cathedral. Archbishop Max Gandolf, Count of Kuenberg, built in 1674 the celebrated pilgrimage church of Maria Plain; his successor, John Ernest, Count of Thun, built the college church, Fischer of Erlach being the architect. The wonderful chimes also date from this period.
Under Leopold Anton, Freiherr von Firmian, Protestant tendencies revealed themselves more vigorously than before, supported and promoted by the Protestant members of the imperial estates. In imitation of the Corpus evangelicorum, the Lutherans of the Salzburg territory formed a league, binding themselves by oath and an outward rite of mutual sprinkling of salt. The infection grew dangerous. The archbishop did all he could; he invited the Jesuits as missionaries, and engaged the help of the emperor. Later he enforced the Decree of the religious Peace of Augsburg: recantation or emigration. In ten years about 30,000 persons left the territory and settled in East Prussia, or in Wurtemberg or Hanoverian territory; a few emigrated to Georgia in North America. A child of the era of “Enlightenment”, Archbishop Jerome Count Colloredo labored in its spirit and with the same persistent rashness as Joseph II. However, his precipitate innovations in both the school system and ecclesiastical matters alienated from him the minds of the people, as had happened in the case of his imperial prototype. The fact that the four ecclesiastics of the highest rank in Germany declared as the first point in the Punctuation of Ems that the rights of the pope should be reduced to those which he enjoyed during the first three centuries, betrays a rare historical sense, since they sawed off the branch on which they sat. While Jerome in this case followed too blindly the lead of Joseph II, he displayed his courage when the emperor wished to erect new ecclesiastical provinces in Vienna and Graz. The Graz province was to be governed by an archbishop, Gorz was to be a simple diocese, and all the dioceses of Inner Austria—including the projected Diocese of Leoben—were to be placed under Graz. Colloredo refused his consent, whereupon the emperor retaliated by seizing the ecclesiastical possessions of Salzburg in Inner Austria, without, however, changing the archbishop’s attitude. Finally, after two years’ negotiations, a settlement was arrived at on April 19, 1786; Salzburg abdicated its episcopal rights in Styria and Carinthia in favor of the Bishops of Sekkau, Leoben, Gurk, and Lavant, but retained its metropolitan rights over them, enjoyed the right of nomination for Sekkau and Lavant at every vacancy, and for Gurk at every third vacancy. For Leoben-of which, however, Engel was the first and the last bishop—the founder was to have the right of nomination, and the metropolitan the right of confirmation.
The classical writers of church music throw a radiance about Salzburg at this period. The house in which Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born (1756) now contains the Mozart museum, with compositions of the master, and his skull (a legacy of Hyrtl). Mozart died in 1791 at Vienna, whither he had come at the age of twenty years. Michael Haydn occupied throughout his life the position of orchestral conductor of the Archbishop of Salzburg (d. 1806). Archbishop Jerome was a special patron of Haydn, and was delighted by the master’s new compositions for almost every ecclesiastical function. Among Haydn’s works are thirty masses, over one hundred graduals, and the glorious “Hier liegt vor deiner Majestat” (Here lies before Thy Majesty). These and the incomparably beautiful responsories of Holy Week express a deep religious sentiment. Salzburg suffered much through the French wars, which led to the destruction of the ecclesiastical principality. The signers of the Peace of Westphalia agreed on one point, that ecclesiastical territory should furnish the means of mutual compensation, the so-called “secularization”. Similarly the men of the French Revolution soon confiscated all church property, and the Germans, their apt pupils, completed the secularization in Germany by the decree of the Imperial Delegate at Ratisbon. The Catholic Church lost three and a half million adherents and a yearly income of twenty million gulden (about $8,000,000). The archbishops of Salzburg were deprived in the same year of their temporal sovereignty; Jerome, the last ecclesiastical sovereign of Salzburg, died at Vienna.
During the first two decades of the nineteenth century Salzburg had a chequered fate: from 1803 to 1805 it was an electorate under Grand-Duke Ferdinand of Tuscany; from 1805 to 1809 it passed into the possession of Austria, from 1809 to the Peace of Vienna it was Bavarian. Short as was the Bavarian dominion, Montegelas found time to overturn all the old institutions. In 1810 the university was dissolved, although the theological faculty remained; the monasteries were forbidden to receive novices, and they owed their continued existence to Crown-Prince Ludwig. The Peace of Vienna restored this beautiful land to the mild rule of the Habsburgs. Francis I gave it an eminent archbishop in Augustin Gruber. Gruber was born at Vienna and developed, as catechist at St. Anna‘s and as teacher of catechetics for the alumni, into the classical writer on catechetical instruction. His “Theorie der Katechetik” and “Praktisches Handbuch der Katechetik fur Katholiken” (2 vols.) have appeared in numerous editions. As aulic councillor for ecclesiastical affairs, Gruber drafted the statute of organization for the Archdiocese of Salzburg, on his succession to which he labored in the true spirit of St. Augustine. Always mild and affectionate, he won back even the obstinate Manharter Sect to the Church; he lectured personally to the ecclesiastical students, especially on St. Augustine and the “Regula pastoralis” of Gregory the Great. On his tours of visitation, he would question the parish-priest concerning the theme suitable to the local conditions, and would immediately preach thereon. One cannot read without emotion his correspondence and hear of his personal relations with Prince Friedrich Schwarzenberg, who became in more than one respect his successor. John Cardinal Katschthaler is the eighty-third bishop, and the seventy-fourth Archbishop of Salzburg. The archdiocese contains 270,000 Catholics,483 secular priests, 216 male religious in 11 convents, and 998 nuns in 102 convents.