Banjaluka, Diocese of, in Western Bosnia, includes some of the most beautiful portions of the province. Banjaluka is the ancient Roman Ad Ladios. By the Bull “Ex hac augusta”, July 5, 1881, restoring the Catholic hierarchy in Bosnia, Leo XIII created one archiepiscopal and three episcopal sees, Banjaluka being the first in precedence among the latter. It includes 4 deaneries, 32 parishes, and more than 80,000 faithful. Its first bishop, Marian Markovie, O. S. F., was consecrated May 4, 1884, but only as Apostolic administrator. His first cathedral was a half-ruined shed, but he afterwards acquired a little church near his residence. At present (1907) most of the parishes are held by Franciscans. In the year 1869 was founded at Mariastern an abbey of Trappists which has already sent out two monastic colonies, to Josephsburg and to Marienburg in Bosnia, and another to Zara in Dalmatia. There are hospitals and schools conducted by Sisters of Charity and Sisters of the Precious Blood. In 1900 Banjaluka and Bihatch also became a diocese for the so-called Orthodox population, the Metropolitan residing at Banjaluka.