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David P. Lang
David P. Lang has a Ph.D. in philosophy from Boston College and a Ph.D. in mathematics from Northeastern University. His articles have appeared in Homiletic and Pastoral Review, Faith and Reason, and This Rock.
"In the week immediately before Lent everyone shall go to his confessor and confess his deeds and the confessor shall so shrive him as he then may hear by his deeds what he is to do [in the way of penance]."
~ Anglo-Saxon "Ecclesiastical Institutes" translated from Theodulphus by Abbot Aelfric about A.D. 1000; explaining the English term "shrovetide" (from "to shrive", or hear confessions) wherein the religious idea is uppermost; but before long, human nature allowed itself some exceptional licence.